Categories
Commentary

Weekly Brief For May 9, 2021

Market Commentary

Key Takeaways: Index futures in price discovery.

  • JPMorgan puts emphasis on reflation.
  • Earnings were great. NFP not so much.
  • Indices diverge. S&P 500, Dow higher.

What Happened: Last week, U.S. stock index futures were divergent with the Nasdaq 100 and Russell 2000 lagging behind the S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average.

The push-pull between equity indices comes as market participants doubled down on the so-called “reflation” trade. JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) strategists, led by Marko Kolanovic, warned many managers will “need to quickly switch gears from their deflationary playbook or risk an ‘inflation shock,’” according to Bloomberg.

“We expect a strong pickup in inflation this year, which the market will likely be slow to recognize and is poorly positioned for,” Kolanovic and his colleagues said. “A combination of boomy global growth and significant bottleneck price pressures should keep inflation on an upward trajectory while most central banks remain committed to their very accommodative stances and are looking through the inflation pickups.”

Kolanovic recommends participants cut cash and credit to increase their allocations to cyclical and value assets.

In parallel, while companies look to cut costs and boost prices, the April jobs report failed to meet expectations as people who increasingly looked for jobs had a difficult time getting hired.

Graphic: Bloomberg data shows first-quarter earnings from S&P 500 companies surging.

“We still think growth will be historically strong this year, but today’s jobs report is a reminder that there’s still work to be done,” Ally Inc-owned Ally Invest strategist Callie Cox said. “It’s a big data point for the inflation worries, too. If hiring slows for the next few months, businesses may not be able to pass on higher costs to consumers.”

Adding, though the April payroll miss was big enough to likely limit the Federal Reserve’s taper or rate hike discussions, traders signaled otherwise.

Earlier this week, Bloomberg reported on a large option bet over quicker rate hikes by the Federal Reserve. The Eurodollar bet carries a notional value of $40 billion and is focused on a potential surprise at the Jackson Hole symposium, used in the past to signal policy changes.

Graphic: Eurodollar bet on SHIFT’s institutional platform. The purchase of 98.00 strike put options suggests traders are looking to add “two Fed hikes to [current] expectations.”

Moving on, technically speaking, equity indexes are at an interesting juncture. 

The Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P 500 resolved their multi-week consolidations, to the upside, while the Russell 2000 is rotating within prior range and Nasdaq 100 is relatively weak, losing support and auctioning into a low-volume area.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

Further, the strong break in the S&P 500, which targets the Fibonacci-derived price extension near $4,300, has thus far been validated by numerous hours of trade outside of the consolidation zone (i.e., balance area). To note, though, the structure left behind Friday’s price discovery was very poor, opening the door for potential repair.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend).

Participants ought to be cautiously optimistic given the weakness in heavily-weighted sectors like technology. Should weakness accelerate, the S&P 500 may succumb. 

Graphic: Daily candlestick charts of the S&P 500 (top left), Nasdaq 100 (top right), Russell 2000 (bottom left), and Dow Jones Industrial Average (bottom right). The Dow is the strongest of the four. The Nasdaq is the weakest.

What To Expect: In the coming sessions, participants will want to focus their attention on where the S&P 500 trades in relation to the balance area it just broke from.

That said, participants can trade from the following frameworks.

In the best case, the index trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,210.75 boundary targets the $4,235.25 price extension. Initiative trade beyond the price extension could reach as high as the $4,266.50-$4,272.75 confluence of Fibonacci-derived price targets.

In the worst case, the index trades lower; activity below $4,210.75 puts in play the $4,179.50 spike base. Trading below the spike base negates end-of-week bullishness.

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Graphic: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for the week ending May 7, 2021. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short-dated tenors, in strikes as low as $404.00, which corresponds with $4,030.00 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).

News And Analysis

Economy | Forbearance exits soar as more plans expire last week. (MND)

Economy | Demand decline fuels price wars across mortgage industry. (WSJ)

Markets | Focus shifts to U.S. prices after the jobs disappointment. (BBG)

Politics | Infrastructure talks could set course of Biden spending plans. (WSJ)

Markets | New SEC chairman sets sights on firms Citadel and Virtu. (WSJ)

Markets | Pipeline hack may push pump rices to $3, ahead of holiday. (BBG)

Recovery | Fauci says ‘no doubt’ the U.S. undercounted virus deaths. (BBG)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

Crypto | German, U.S. regulators tighten focus on the crypto market. (FT)

Space | China’s ambitions in space: national pride or taking on U.S. (FT)

Crypto | Crypto startup Dfinity set to launch a blockchain AWS rival. (FT

About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

 Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For May 7, 2021

Market Commentary

Index futures in balance.

  • Fed warns over asset valuations.
  • Ahead: Data on nonfarm payrolls.
  • Value strong, tech relatively weak.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned higher overnight ahead of non-farm payroll data.

Graphic updated at 8:43 AM EST.

What To Expect: Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open just outside of prior -range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity. 

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by initiative trade above the $4,177.25 high volume area (HVNode), which is significant because it marked a crucial pivot, on a larger time frame.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

Further, the compressed range over the past few sessions was resolved during Thursday’s end-of-day spike, as participants likely looked to price in expectations of strong jobs data. 

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

For today, participants can trade from the following frameworks. 

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,179.50 spike base targets puts in play the $4,210.75 minimal excess high. Initiative trade beyond $4,210.75 could reach as high as the $4,235.25 Fibonacci-derived price extension. 

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below $4,179.50 puts in play the $4,163.00 POC.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Graphic: SHIFT search suggests participants were most interested in call strikes at and above $4,200.00 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX), Thursday.
Graphic: Daily candlestick charts of the S&P 500 (top left), Nasdaq 100 (top right), Russell 2000 (bottom left), and Dow Jones Industrial Average (bottom right). The Dow is the strongest of the four. The Nasdaq is the weakest.

News And Analysis

Markets | Credit Review and Outlook: Bonds and the Booming Economy. (Moody’s)

Markets | Fed is warning of hidden leverage lurking in the financial system. (FT)

Markets | EU climate change head warns against curbing carbon price rally. (FP)

Markets | Cathie Wood’s ARK Innovation ETF is selling off. May it worsen? (Barron’s)

Politics | Merkel pushes back on vaccine patent waiver in row with the U.S. (BBG)

Economy | BoE foresees biggest U.K. spending boom since Thatcher era. (BBG)

Markets | Traders ramp up bets on a hawkish Fed surprise at Jackson Hole. (BBG)

Recovery | Gandhi warns ‘explosive’ COVID wave threatens India and the world. (REU)

Markets | Investors eye inflation, seasonally weaker market as tech wobbles. (REU)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

FinTech | Citi weighs launching crypto services after a surge in client interest. (FT)

FinTech | Payments, lending, and neobanks rule fintechs in emerging markets. (TC)

FinTech | Chime forced to ditch the use of word ‘bank’ after regulatory pushback. (AB)

About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, Canadian businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For April 22, 2021

Market Commentary

Index futures resolve directionally, yesterday. Base overnight.

  • Growth warning, economic data.
  • ECB decision, claims, and more.
  • Sellers have trouble dominating.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures broke their downtrend, yesterday, and auctioned sideways overnight, ahead of announcements by the European Central Bank, data on initial claims, home sales, and manufacturing, as well as earnings releases.

What To Expect: Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity. 

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by initiative trade above the $4,155.00 high volume area (HVNode). This is significant due to the fact that the downtrend broke after participants lacked the conviction to move prices lower, evidenced via a poor, minimal excess low. 

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Short-term sellers, simply put, piled on at the low and weren’t paid quickly for their risk. This inventory was resolved during Wednesday’s trend-day higher. 

Looking beyond the equity indices, breadth is pegged at its high. In the U.S., according to The Market Ear, the percent of stocks above their 200-day moving average hit 96%, the highest since 2009. Typically, after such instances, one- to three-month returns are positive.

Beyond big-picture narratives, for today, participants can trade from the following frameworks. 

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,153.50 spike base targets the point of control (POC) near $4,171.00. Initiative trade beyond the POC could reach as high as (1) the $4,183.00 regular trade high (RTH High) and (2) Fibonacci-derived price targets near $4,187.00-$4,197.25.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or lower; activity below the $4,117.75 regular trade low targets first the $4,110.50 poor, minimal excess low. Thereafter, if lower, participants can look for responses at (1) the $4,093.00 VPOC, (2) $4,082.75 HVNode, and (3) the $4069.25 HVNode. 

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

POCs: POCs (like HVNodes described above) are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.
Graphic: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Graphic: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for April 21. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short-dated tenors, in strikes as high as $422, which corresponds with $4,220.00 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).
Graphic: Noticeable increase in call-side interest on the cash-settled Nasdaq-100 Index (INDEX: NDX), expiring 4/28. Such activity suggests (1) an expectation, by participants, of a rotation back into technology, or (2) a hedge against earnings surprises, and the like. Visual via SHIFT.
Graphic: Market liquidity in the Invesco QQQ Trust (NASDAQ: QQQ), one of the largest ETFs that track Nasdaq-100 prices, supports price rise.

News And Analysis

Economy | U.S. jobless claims plunged last week to a pandemic low. (BBG)

Politics | President Biden plans to cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. (BBG)

Markets | Credit Suisse Group raises $2B as CEO cuts hedge fund unit. (BBG)

Markets | Southwest Airlines bookings improve, will likely break even. (CNBC)

Economy | Should investors worry about a Chinese Lehman-style crisis? (BBG)

Markets | Bank of Canada signals rake hike, tapers bond purchases. (REU)

Economy | Fiscal stimulus, improving employment supports bank assets. (Moody’s)

Economy | Mortgage applications broke a six-week slump, last week. (SOURCE)

Economy | U.S. economy on a solid footing, the virus still a top threat. (REU)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

FinTech | Nasdaq democratizes information, fuels on-demand finance trend. (BZ)

Startups | Investors, executives, and founders discuss Zagreb’s startup potential. (TC)

FinTech | Why VCs are investing in non-fungible token (NFT) marketplaces? (CBN)

Investing | How can you build a robust portfolio that outperforms for a century? (BBG)

 About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, Canadian businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

 Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For April 14, 2021

Market Commentary

Index futures in attempting to balance and validate higher prices.

  • The Fed worried about disinflation.
  • Economic Club hosts Fed’s Powell.
  • Growth and inflation already priced.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures balanced overnight as participants positioned themselves for a strong earnings season.

What To Expect: Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity. 

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade in the S&P 500, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by initiative trade above $4,127.00, which is significant because it marked an overnight-high (ONH).

More On Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

It seems that nearly every day this commentary goes out, U.S. index futures are trading sideways or higher. Is that a reason to become bearish? Absolutely not. 

Much of the advance comes in light of a historically bullish period for markets. As a result of supportive structural flows and the pricing in of positive earnings expectations, the S&P 500 is up over 11% since the start of March.

Graphic: April, historically speaking, is usually a good month for equity investors. 

Taking a step back, based on speculative derivatives activity, participants are opportunistically hedging their downside. This is evidenced by ask-side activity in long-dated puts, which provide holders with the right to sell an asset, at a certain price, at some point in the future.

Graphic: The Balance explains how call and put options work. 

At the same time, volatility is falling off of a cliff causing the sensitivity of options to changes in underlying price to increase. As a result, because option dealers are typically long calls and short puts, the “long-gamma” dynamic — crushed volatility and momentum — becomes more pronounced; amid associated hedging, liquidity increases and movement declines. This dynamic will likely resolve itself come April’s monthly options expiration.

Option Expiration (OPEX) Significance: Option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire worthless) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

For today, participants can trade from the following frameworks. 

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above $4,139.75 excess high targets $4,143.00, a price extension. Initiative trade beyond the $4,143.00 level could reach as high as $4,197.25. In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,120.00 pull-back low targets the $4,112.75 high-volume area (HVNode) and $4,104.00 spike base. 

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume (HVNode). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area (LVNode) which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).
Graphic: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Graphic: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for April 13. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short- and long-dated tenors, in strikes near $412, which corresponds with $4,120 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).
Graphic: SHIFT search shows that trade in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY) was scattered across call and put strikes near current prices.

News And Analysis

Travel | Airlines can’t get the world flying again despite the U.S. boom. (BBG)

Recovery | Amsterdam’s recovery from a deadly outbreak in 1665. (BBG)

Energy | Overhang in oil inventories worked off, outlook improving. (IEA)

Crypto | Yellen, crypto fearmongers get pushback from CIA director. (Forbes)

Markets | Nomura, Credit Suisse tighten financing in hedge fund units. (BBG)

Recovery | Pfizer, and BioNTech on track to beat Q2 EU vaccine goal. (BBG)

Earnings | JPMorgan’s net profit soars 5-fold to $14.3B, the stock slipped. (MW)

Economy | National delinquency rate posted a fifth consecutive decline. (MND)

Economy | Fed needs to do more to keep short-term rates above zero. (REU)

Crypto | IRS says crypto reporting standards would help close the tax gap. (TB)

Markets | SPACs may cast a wider net as competition for targets increases. (CB)

World | Japan to release contaminated Fukushima water after treatment. (REU)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

FinTech | Banks, wealth managers, fintech to create ‘Goldilocks’ product. (TA)

NFT | New York Stock Exchange debuts ‘First Trade’ non-fungible tokens. (FN)

 

About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, Canadian businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

 Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For April 12, 2021

Market Commentary

Index futures are attempting to balance and validate higher prices.

  • Pay attention to economic reports.
  • Earnings season officially starting.
  • Balance-to-higher into April OPEX.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures balanced overnight ahead of first-quarter earnings reports by large financial firms.

What To Expect: Monday’s regular session in the S&P 500 (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for directional opportunity. 

Adding, during prior regular trade, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by initiative trade above the S&P 500’s $4,100.00 high-interest strike, which will act as a magnet into Friday’s monthly options expiration (OPEX). 

Option Expiration (OPEX) Significance: Option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire worthless) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

As a result, given low trading volumes, and because of how impactful activity in the derivatives market is, traders should consider the potential for further balance or digestion of higher prices.

Further, for today, participants can trade from the following frameworks. 

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,104.00 spike base targets the $4,121.50 overnight-high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,197.25 price extension. In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,104.00 spike base targets the $4,069.00 and $3,943.00 high-volume areas (HVNode).

More On Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume (HVNode). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area (LVNode) which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.
Graphic 1: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Graphic 2: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for the week ending April 9, 2021. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short- and long-dated tenors, in put strikes as low as $340, which corresponds with $3,400 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).

News And Analysis

Markets | U.S. economic recovery underpins dollar strength. (Moody’s)

FinTech | Jack Ma’s Ant Group bows to Beijing with an overhaul. (WSJ)

Trade | U.S. freight traffic posted its biggest annual gain ever. (Axios)

Housing | U.S. housing frenzy driven by an inventory shortage. (Axios)

FinTech | Biden team eyes potential threat from Digital Yuan plans. (BBG)

Economy | Survey suggests 53% of Canadians near insolvency. (BNN)

Hedge Funds | How Ken Griffin rebuilt Citadel’s ramparts post-2008. (FT)

Markets | Bloomberg analysts arguing over $400K bitcoin target. (CD)

FinTech | Coinbase experiences brisk user growth ahead of IPO. (VC)

Economy | Five reasons why COVID herd immunity is impossible. (Nature)

Politics | U.S., China deploy carriers in South China amid tension. (CNN)

Economy | Goldman Sachs warns Biden Tax Plan will cut earnings. (BBG)

Banking | Credit Suisse faces tough choices on investment bank. (WSJ)

Economy | In unprecedented times, don’t rely on precedent. (BR)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

Markets | Financial industry supports cutting equities settlement. (MM)

Technology | Businesses taking a hurry-up-and-wait approach to AI. (WSJ)

FinTech | Charles Schwab is looking to shape crypto procedures. (Block)

About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, Canadian businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Weekly Brief For April 11, 2021

Editor’s Note

Welcome to Market Intelligence, Physik Invest’s response to the many newsletters that seldom provide actionable market insights, free.

Through this newsletter you will get a glimpse into the following:

  • The implications of credit and positioning.
  • Impactful events in finance and technology.
  • Technical commentary for index products.
  • Media on emerging trends and hot topics.

Again, thanks for joining! Physik Invest looks forward to providing you an objective view into the who, what, when, where, why, and how in finance and technology.

Regards,

Renato Leonard Capelj


Market Commentary

Index futures are in price discovery mode.

  • Institutions bullish but risks add up.
  • Earnings season to start this week.
  • Balance-to-higher into April OPEX.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures closed higher, last week.

What Does It Mean: The S&P 500 closed above $4,100 for the first time as investors looked to price in an economic “‘Goldilocks moment’—fast, sustained growth alongside inflation and interest rates that drift slowly upward.”

According to a letter by JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) Jamie Dimon, strong consumer savings, an increased pace in COVID-19 coronavirus vaccinations, and unprecedented efforts to spur economic activity could mean that a boom lasts as long as 2023. 

This perspective differs from Dimon’s comments a year ago; he warned of a recession in which GDP could fall nearly 35%. Is Dimon one to fade? Likely not, given the fact that (1) he heads one of the biggest banks and (2) most forecasts by other institutions support Dimon’s perspectives.

Further, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX), a measure of the stock market’s expectation of volatility based on S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options, traded to its lowest level since February 2020.

At the same time, participants saw blocks of VIX call spreads — bets that serenity won’t last — hit the tape; the unknown participant(s) bought nearly 200,000 contracts.

Graphic 1: Risk graph of the 25/40 VIX call spread in question via MarketEar

“With VIX being priced in the low 17 area, I would imagine we would see more of these larger-sized bets going forward,” Kris Sidial, co-chief investment officer at Ambrus Group, told Bloomberg. “I think smart money understands that, although volatility has contracted a lot in these last two months, we are still seeing signs of excess market fragility appear from many different angles.”

Graphic 2: Volatility declines to its lowest level since February 2020.

As stated last week, the market is in a historically bullish period, ahead of the upcoming corporate earnings season, with structural flows supporting the ongoing narrative into the coming April monthly options expiration (OPEX).

Option Expiration (OPEX) Significance: Option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire worthless) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Adding, most funds are committed to holding long positions. In the interest of lower volatility returns, these funds will collar off their positions, selling calls to finance the purchase of downside put protection.

As a result of this activity, options dealers are long upside and short downside protection.

This exposure must be hedged; dealers will sell into strength as their call (put) positions gain (lose) value and buy into weakness as their call (put) positions lose (gain) value.

Now, unlike theory suggests, dealers will hedge call losses (gains) quicker (slower). This leads to “long-gamma,” a dynamic that crushes volatility and promotes momentum, observed by lengthy sprints — like the one the market is currently in — followed by rapid de-risking events as the market transitions into “short-gamma.”

What To Expect: Balance-to-higher.

Important to note is that equity market inflows, over the past 5 months, exceeded inflows of the prior 12 years, total. Think about the supply and demand dynamics of the market; in case of an equity market sell-off, a lot of late buyers will have poor location which may leave a thick area of supply above the market, putting a dampener on future rallies. 

“You should definitely be worried about valuations and all the more so when people start justifying extremely high valuations. We are risk-on, but we haven’t put our foot down on the accelerator because of valuations in some parts of the market,” said Fahad Kamal, chief investment officer at Kleinwort Hambros.

Adding to the narrative, metrics, like DIX, confirm increased buying pressure while divergences in options activity suggest opportunistic hedging, especially with puts trading at their cheapest level, relative to calls the same delta.

Graphic 3: 1-month 25 delta risk-reversal, via SpotGamma, suggests puts are trading cheap.
More On DIX: For every buyer is a seller (usually a market maker). Using DIX — which is derived from short sales (i.e., liquidity provision on the market-making side) — we can measure buying pressure.
Graphic 4: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for the week ending April 9, 2021. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short- and long-dated tenors, in put strikes as low as $340, which corresponds with $3,400 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).

What To Do: In the coming sessions, participants will want to pay attention to where the S&P 500 trades in relation to Friday’s end-of-day spike higher.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

In the best case, the S&P 500 remains above the $4,104.00 spike base. Doing so means that the participants are validating the prices caused by the late-day knee-jerk rally. 

In the case of higher prices, given that the 161.80% and 127.20% Fibonacci price extensions were achieved, and after-market trade established an overnight high at $4,121.50, participants can target prices as high as the $4,197.25 price extension.

More On Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Any activity below the $4,104.00 spike base puts the rally on hold and calls for balance or an attempt to digest higher prices.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend).

In the case of lower prices, participants can look to whether a test of the $4,069.00 high-volume area (HVNode) solicits a response. If not, initiative trade could take prices as low as $3,943.00, the next most valuable price area in the chain.

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume (HVNode). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area (LVNode) which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.
Graphic 5: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

News And Analysis

Economy | No elevated default risk expected until 2023. (Moody’s)

Economy | China looks to curtail loan growth amid bubble fears. (BBG)

Markets | Pre-IPO, Coinbase releases blowout Q1 2021 results. (BW)

Markets | Growing signs that equity bull market overheating. (Axios)

Economy | CFPB warns lenders of a wave of distressed mortgages. (MP)

Markets | Cboe extends global trading for VIX and SPX options. (Cboe)

Markets | Unpacking the feedback loop that is distorting markets. (RV)

Trade | Global trade disruptions after the Suez Canal incident. (S&P)

Economy | U.S. COVID-19 vaccination rates to plateau in April. (Surgo)

Markets | Treasuries rally signaling bets on Fed hikes pared back. (BBG)

Markets | Bitcoin fills a demand for alternatives to fiat currencies. (BBG)

Economy | Powell says the economy poised for stronger growth. (BBG)

Markets | Earnings season starts with banks reporting this week. (WSJ)

Markets | Citadel Securities feels the heat of the political spotlight. (BBG)

Markets | Oil sideways. Gold, DXY higher. Copper, aluminum lower. (REU)

What People Are Saying

Innovation And Emerging Trends

Strategy | Strategies one VC believes made Stripe so successful. (BI)

FinTech | Fidelity, Square, and others, form crypto trade group. (WSJ)

FinTech | WealthCharts expands offer, tackles emerging trends. (BZ)

FinTech | SoftBank invests $500M in mortgage lender Better. (CNBC)

FinTech | Rarible co-founder says NFTs to stay, growth robust. (BZ)

FinTech | JPMorgan’s Dimon acknowledges fintech’s big threat. (BZ)

FinTech | Vesica launches a search engine for the options market. (BZ)

About

Renato founded Physik Invest after going through years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error. His work reporting in the finance and technology space, interviewing leaders such as John Chambers, founder, and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, Canadian businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others, afforded him the perspective and know-how very few come by.

Having worked in engineering and majored in economics, Renato is very detailed and analytical. His approach to the markets isn’t built on hope or guessing. Instead, he leverages the unique dynamics of time and volatility to efficiently act on opportunity.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Cover photo by Kammeran Gonzalez-Keola from Pexels.

Categories
Commentary

Market Commentary For The Week Ahead: ‘Up, Up And Away’

Key Takeaways:

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures closed higher, last week.

What Does It Mean: The S&P 500 closed above $4,000.00 for the first time.

This comes as investors shifted their focus from the risks of rapidly rising inflation to the increasing pace of COVID-19 coronavirus vaccinations and a rebound in economic activity.

At the time, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX), a measure of the stock market’s expectation of volatility based on S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options, hit the lowest level since February of 2020. This was likely the result of an oversupply in volatility due to contract rolling, signaling a shift in the demand for volatility and options-based hedging.

Graphic 1: Volatility declines ahead of the extended holiday weekend.

Adding, the market is entering into a historically bullish period, ahead of the upcoming corporate earnings season, with structural flows supporting the ongoing narrative, also, at least until mid-April. The reason being, most funds are committed to holding long positions. In the interest of lower volatility returns, these funds will collar off their positions, selling calls to finance the purchase of downside put protection.

Graphic 2: April, historically speaking, is usually a good month for equity investors. 

As a result of this activity, options dealers are long upside and short downside protection.

This exposure must be hedged; dealers will sell into strength as their call (put) positions gain (lose) value and buy into weakness as their call (put) positions lose (gain) value.

Now, unlike theory suggests, dealers will hedge call losses (gains) quicker (slower). This leads to “long-gamma,” a dynamic that crushes volatility and promotes momentum, observed by lengthy sprints — like the one the market is currently in — followed by rapid de-risking events as the market transitions into “short-gamma.”

What To Expect: Balance-to-higher into mid-April.

Why? One last hurrah before the reopening accelerates and flows turn. 

When flows turn, it is likely that equity and bond market volatility converge; the ongoing divergence comes alongside an attempt, by market participants, to price in rising debt levels and inflation. As consumers shift their preferences from saving and investing to spending, this divergence ought to disappear.

Graphic 3: Q1 2021 the worst quarter for bonds in decades, via Bloomberg
Graphic 4: Divergence in volatility across the bond and equity market.

Adding, metrics, like DIX, confirm increased buying pressure while divergences in options activity and volume delta suggest opportunistic selling.

More On DIX: For every buyer is a seller (usually a market maker). Using DIX — which is derived from short sales (i.e., liquidity provision on the market-making side) — we can measure buying pressure.

Volume Delta: Buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer.
Graphic 5: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for the week ending April 4, 2021. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short- and long-dated tenors, in strikes as low as $330, which corresponds with $3,300 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).

What To Do: In the coming sessions, participants will want to pay attention to where the S&P 500 trades in relation to Thursday’s end-of-day spike higher.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

In the best case, the S&P 500 remains above the $4,004.25 spike base. Doing so means that the participants are finding higher prices, above the VWAP anchored from the March 17 rally-high, valuable (i.e., buyers, on average, are in control and winning since the March 17 rally-high).

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs. 

In the case of higher prices, given that the $4,015.25 price extension was achieved in after-market trade that established an overnight high at $4,038.25, participants can target the $4,062.00 extension.

More On Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Any activity below the $4,004.25 spike base puts the rally on hold and calls for balance or digestion of higher prices.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend).

In the case of lower prices, participants can look to whether a test of the $3,943.00 and $3,908.25 high-volume areas (HVNodes) solicit a response.

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume (HVNode). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area (LVNode) which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.
Graphic 6: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Conclusions: The go/no-go level for next week’s trade is $4,004.25.

Any activity above this level confirms the bullishness of last Thursday’s end-of-day spike. 

Levels Of Interest: $4,004.25 Spike Base.

Cover photo by Taryn Elliott from Pexels.

Categories
Commentary

Market Commentary For The Week Ahead: ‘Down, Then Up’

Key Takeaways:

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures closed higher, last week.

What Does It Mean: In the face of stretched sentiment and positioning — a heightened appetite for risk — investors shifted their focus from the risks of rapidly rising inflation to the increasing pace of COVID-19 coronavirus vaccinations and a rebound in economic activity.

This comes after an outlier 2020; the distribution of S&P 500 1-year returns was ‘unexpected,’ sitting in the far end of the right tail.

Graphic 1: Distribution of S&P 500 1-Year Returns via Bloomberg

Adding, according to S&P Global Ratings, concerns over inflation appear “overblown and [] orderly reflation, around a return to sustainable growth, is a healthy development for both macro and credit outcomes.”

This notion is further validated by history; according to Bloomberg, “Since 2008, markets have consistently priced in a more aggressive path of Fed rate hikes than what ultimately happened. Consider the situation in late 2008: traders were already bracing for several hikes in the years ahead, according to data crunched by JPMorgan Chase & Co. (NYSE: JPM), but policy makers held off on tightening until 2015.”

Due to this mispricing, traders are behind the curve when the Fed finally hikes. Between 2017, through 2018, traders were scrambling to keep up with the Fed’s seven hikes.

Graphic 2: Bloomberg maps out the pricing in of Federal Reserve rate hikes.

“The market has its pricing and perceptions, and what happens can differ from that and has,” Alex Roever, head of U.S. rates strategy at JPMorgan, told Bloomberg News. The market has been testing the Fed by “trying to push further forward the first hike. But Fed officials don’t seem to be having any of it.”

The Fed’s hesitancy to change its stance is warranted; broadly speaking, financial conditions haven’t budged. 

Graphic 3: U.S. financial conditions appear accommodative, via Bloomberg

Analysts at S&P Global Ratings put it best: “Our bottom line is that orderly reflation is, on balance, a healthy development for macro and credit outcomes. This narrative implies that moderate demand and wage pressures have reemerged after a lost decade and that the interest rate structure has the potential to return to more normal levels. While there will inevitably be some market adjustments as credit is repriced, this will lead to better outcomes.”

A natural evolution — trend in rates toward normalcy — would provide monetary authorities ammunition in another downturn, and price credit in a way that rebalances the natural supply and demand dynamics of the market (i.e., non-productive firms are forced out of business).

What To Expect: Directional resolve.

Why? During prior trade, participants lacked conviction. This is evidenced by a failure, by participants, to introduce excess (e.g., tails or range expansion past historical turning points) in the S&P 500.

More On Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants can aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Adding, metrics, like DIX, suggest increased buying pressure. This comes after what appears to have been opportunistic buying or short covering into weakness, and some bearish trades in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX), among other products like Chinese technology stocks and U.S. media companies. 

More On DIX: For every buyer is a seller (usually a market maker). Using DIX — which is derived from short sales (i.e., liquidity provision on the market making side) — we can measure buying pressure.
Graphic 4: Physik Invest maps out the purchase of call and put options in the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), for the week ending March 26, 2021. Activity in the options market was primarily concentrated in short- and long-dated tenors, in strikes as low as $361, which corresponds with $3,610 in the cash-settled S&P 500 Index (INDEX: SPX).

What To Do: In the coming sessions, participants will want to pay attention to where the S&P 500 trades in relation to Friday’s end-of-day spike higher, which was likely the result of hedging.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

In the best case, the S&P 500 remains above the $3,934.00 spike base, taking out Friday’s minimal excess high. Doing so means that the participants are finding higher prices, above the VWAP anchored from the March 17 rally-high, valuable (i.e., buyers, on average, are in control and winning since the March 17 rally-high).

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs. 

In case of higher prices, participants can target the $3,978.50 overnight rally-high, as well as the $4,015.25 and $4,062.00 price extensions.

More On Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Any activity below the VWAP anchored from the $3,978.50 peak may (1) leave the $3,900.00 HVNode as an area of supply, offering initiative sellers favorable entry and responsive buyers favorable exit.

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume (HVNode). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area (LVNode) which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high-volume for favorable entry or exit.
Graphic 5: 4-hour profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Conclusions: The go/no-go level for next week’s trade is $3,934.00.

Any activity above this level confirms the bullishness of last Friday’s end-of-day spike. 

Levels Of Interest: $3,934.00 Spike Base.

Cover photo by Min An from Pexels

Categories
Commentary

Market Commentary For 3/17/2021

Notice: To view this week’s big picture outlook, click here.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures liquidated as investors weighed the implications of rising yields ahead of outcomes on a U.S. Federal Reserve policy meeting.

What Does It Mean: Heading into Wednesday’s session, which ought to be volatile as participants position themselves in response to new economic projections, responsive trade is the course of action.

This notion is supported by market liquidity metrics, which suggest buying pressure is leveling out, and options activity, which points to a build in interest at the $4,000 S&P 500 level, ahead of Friday’s monthly option expiration (OPEX).

More On Option Expiration (OPEX): Option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire worthless) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

What To Expect: Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET) will likely open just outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

During Tuesday’s trade, participants established minimal excess at a new all-time rally-high before auctioning the S&P 500 below its $3,947.75 spike base, negating the bullishness of Monday’s end-of-day trade.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

For today, participants can trade from the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 finds acceptance (i.e., resolves higher or sideways), above the $3,931.00 Virgin Point of Control (VPOC). In the worst case, the S&P 500 finds acceptance (i.e., resolves lower or sideways) below the $3,931.00 VPOC.

In case of higher prices, participants may look to auction as high as the $3,948.00 VPOC and $3,970.75 rally-high. In case of lower prices, participants can look to the $3,904.25 low-volume area (LVNode) for a response.

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high-volume for favorable entry or exit.

More On POCs: POCs (like HVNodes described above) are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Levels Of Interest: $3,931.00 VPOC.

Profile overlays on a 15-minute candlestick chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.
Categories
Commentary

Market Commentary For 3/16/2021

Notice: To view this week’s big picture outlook, click here.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned higher ahead of releases on retail sales, industrial production, and a Federal Reserve policy meeting.

What Does It Mean: Alongside positive news concerning vaccines, stimulus, and improved economic data, U.S. index futures recovered from their most recent swing low.

As stated yesterday, given the speed and distance of the S&P 500’s recovery since March 4, the potential for balance, or two-sided trade is high as participants look for more information to base their next move on.

In support of this thesis are market liquidity metrics which suggested (1) buying pressure was leveling out and/or (2) buyers were absorbing resting liquidity (opportunistic selling or selling into strength), while speculative options activity appeared muted.

Graphic: Market liquidity for the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index.

What To Expect: Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET) will likely open just outside of prior-range, suggesting the potential for immediate directional opportunity.

During Monday’s trade, participants rallied the S&P 500 into the close, leaving another end-of-day spike.

More On Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

For today, participants can trade from the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 finds acceptance (i.e., resolves higher or sideways), above the $3,947.74 spike base. In the worst case, the S&P 500 finds acceptance (i.e., resolves lower or sideways) below the $3,947.74 spike base.

In case of higher prices, participants may look to auction as high as the $3,947.25 price extension, a typical recovery target.

In case of lower prices, participants would look for responses at the $3,931.00 Virgin Point Of Control (VPOC) and $3,898.25 high-volume area (HVNode).

More On Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high-volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low-volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low-volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high-volume for favorable entry or exit.

More On POCs: POCs (like HVNodes described above) are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Levels Of Interest: $3,947.74 spike base.

Profile overlays on a 15-minute candlestick chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.