Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 23, 2022

Physik Invest’s Daily Brief is read by over 1,200 people. To join this community and learn about the fundamental and technical drivers of markets, subscribe below.

Graphic updated 6:45 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of this letter. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) with the latter calculated based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Click to learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Team, it’s been insane on my end. Physik Invest’s Daily Brief will be paused through the end of this week (November 24 and 25). Wishing you happy holidays!

Hopefully, clearer notes and consistent releases to resume, after the break.


Crypto Turmoil Persists:

The FTX (CRYPTO: FTT) debacle has induced even more illiquidity.

Bloomberg’s Matt Levine wrote that the fall in liquidity “has been dubbed the ‘Alameda Gap,’” noting that “[p]lunges in liquidity usually come during periods of volatility as trading shops pull bids and asks from their order books.”

Turmoil and Opportunity:

You may take advantage of the aforementioned uncertainties through arbitrage (i.e., buy at a lower price at one venue and sell at a higher price at another venue). Notice the ~$500 spread on BTC/USDT, for instance.

Graphic: Retrieved from Shift Search at 6:53 AM ET on November 23, 2022.

Elsewhere, the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (OTC: GBTC) is trading at a ~43.00% discount to the value of the Bitcoin (CRYPTO: BTC) it holds.

Per Bloomberg, “US regulators have repeatedly denied applications to convert GBTC into a physically-backed exchange-traded fund,” and that means the fund is not “able to redeem shares to keep pace with shifting demand.”

To note, the discount pales in comparison to the 101.00% premium to the net-asset value achieved in December 2017. The average net-asset value is a 12.00% premium.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

Anyways, in greater detail, we discussed the crypto turmoil on November 9 and 10. Those notes may be of interest if the context is desired. Though this is not a crypto-focused letter, crypto is “tied up in the liquidity bubble that exists across all assets.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Physik Invest’s Daily Brief posted on November 10, 2022.

As an example, during the week of November 8, when the narrative surrounding FTX’s demise was at its peak, the S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX), Bitcoin (CRYPTO: BTC), and FTX Trading token (CRYPTO: FTT) slid lower, bottomed, and rallied in sync.

Uncertainty, Correlation, and Positioning:

This is a part of the letter that may appear somewhat similar. We continue carrying forward and building on past analyses.

At its core, breakages in correlations some may have observed are accentuated by positioning forces we have talked about recently, as well as the above. These forces are important as you may have noticed the S&P 500’s tendency in responding to areas quoted by this letter.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

In a nutshell, in light of a “de-grossing of ‘shorts’” per Nomura Holdings Inc (NYSE: NMR), the sale of the volatility investors owned, after events such as elections and CPI, boosted markets indirectly (i.e., counterparty exposure to risk declines as the market rises and investors sell volatility → counterparty reduces the size of their negative Delta hedges → this reduces market pressure and bolsters a rally).

Graphic: Retrieved from Nomura Holdings Inc (NYSE: NMR) via ZeroHedge.

Investors’ continued supply of protection, all the while markets were rising, resulted in further indirect support and, later, prompted responsiveness to key areas at which the options activity was concentrated. This was better detailed on November 16 and 18.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

While this activity is happening – the S&P pinning – underlying constituents are swinging far more amid traders’ own “uneasiness” in stocks and the crypto turmoil; if there are forces pinning and supporting the S&P, all the while there are constraints connecting it to wild(er) components, then something (e.g., correlation) has to give.

Expecting More Of The Same For Now:

Nonetheless, it’s likely for this wild activity under the surface to continue, and for the S&P 500, itself, to be the recipient of even more supportive flows.

For example, the buyback related to the pulled-forward decay of options’ Delta with respect to time (Charm) and continued sale of volatility (Vanna), in a lower liquidity environment, likely results in hedging flows enforcing seasonality and masking the wild(ness) mentioned above.

Graphic: Retrieved from Goldman Sachs Group Inc (NYSE: GS) via The Market Ear.

Risks Building Under The Surface:

However, what is happening right now may set the stage for persistently high realized volatility (RVOL) when something bad does happen and those flows we talked about do less to resist that underlying volatility and weakness.

To explain, implied volatility (IVOL) has performed poorly in the context of 2022’s far-reaching decline. That’s in part the result of proactive hedging and monetization of protection (i.e., supply) into the decline.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. Measures of equity IVOL tame relative to bonds and FX.

Investors, with IVOL performing poorly, are pushed into better-performing strategies. That includes selling IVOL which does less and less to boost the markets more and more (i.e., per SpotGamma, “the marginal impact of added volatility compression is far lower” at this juncture).

Accordingly, the market is left in a more precarious, less well-hedged position, and that’s concerning given some of the cracks that have appeared including the Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS) debacle covered in October, the UK liability-driven investment funds covered in September, interest rate swap risks, and beyond.

SCT Capital’s Hari Krishnan talked about some of these risks on a recent podcast.

In Essence, It’s Cheap To Hedge:

According to SpotGamma, “if you wanted to hedge, … it is historically cheap.”

Graphic: Cboe VVIX (INDEX: VVIX) measuring the expected volatility of the 30-day forward price of the VIX. Retrieved from TradingView. Via SpotGamma: “The VVIX is a naive check of participants’ exposure to the volatility of volatility itself (i.e., the non-linear sensitivity of an options price to changes in volatility or Vega convexity). This goes back to the point about the marginal impact of much more volatility compression; the marginal impact of volatility (expansion) compression would have a (bigger) smaller impact, comparatively.”

When you think there is to be an outsized move in the underlying, relative to what is priced, you buy options (+Gamma or positive exposure to directional movement).

When you think there is to be an outsized move in the implied volatility, relative to what is priced, you buy options (+Volga or positive exposure to IVOL changes).

If there’s a large change in direction (RVOL) or IVOL repricing, you may make money.

As an example, in mid-June, a trading partner and I noticed a change in tone in the non-linearity of volatility and skew with respect to linear changes in the price of the market (or S&P 500). The prices of ratio spread structures (i.e., long or short one option near-the-money, short or long two or more further out-of-the-money) changed by hundreds of percent for only a few basis points of change in the indexes.

At the time, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan noted this was “a spike in short-dated -sticky skew, [the] first we’ve seen since [the] secular decline began and it hints [at] a potentially critical change in dealer positioning [and] the distribution of underlying outcomes.” 

“We’re transitioning to a fat left tail, right-based distribution,” he added. 

So why does any of this matter?

In essence, it’s cheap to hedge and the context is there for you to do so, at least from a volatility (not directional) perspective. 

Here is an excerpt from Mohamed Bouzoubaa et al’s book Exotic Options and Hybrids to support some of the earlier statements.

Options have a “non-zero second-order price sensitivity (or convexity) to a change in volatility,” Bouzoubaa et al explain. “ATM vanillas are [not] convex in the underlying’s price, … but OTM vanillas do have vega convexity … [so], when the holder of an option is long vega convexity, we say she is long vol-of-vol.” 

In other words, by owning protection that’s far from current prices, you are positioned to monetize on a non-linear repricing of volatility, something we saw earlier this year and may continue to see.

Doing this in a manner that cuts decay (when nothing happens) is the difficult part.

Calendar and diagonal spreads come to mind (i.e., sell a short-dated option and buy a far-dated option). You are betting against movement (negative Gamma) over a span of time you don’t think the market will move (e.g., Thanksgiving). And, you are betting on movement (positive Gamma) over a larger span of time (e.g., after Thanksgiving) where decay may not be as accelerated.

Graphic: Retrieved from Trading Volatility, Correlation, Term Structure and Skew by Colin Bennett et al. Originally sourced via Academia.edu.

Ultimately, counterparties’ response to new demands for protection, if something bad happens later, would exacerbate movement and aid in the repricing of IVOL.

At that new IVOL level, there would be more stored energy to catalyze a rally and this letter would express that.

To sell downside volatility (or puts) at this juncture (with time) is a poor trade. To sell downside volatility as part of a larger, more complex structure could be a good trade (e.g., sell a call spread to finance an ultra-wide SPX put ratio spread).

It all depends on structure and management.

Technical

As of 6:45 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the middle part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of the prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Our S&P 500 pivot for today is $4,000.25. 

Key levels to the upside include $4,027.00, $4,051.00, and $4,069.25. 

Key levels to the downside include $3,985.00, $3,965.25, and $3,923.00.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView platform. All levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.


About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Capelj also writes options market analyses at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga journalist. 

His past works include private discussions with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, the infamous Sam Bankman-Fried of FTX, former Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, the Lithuanian Delegation’s Aušrinė Armonaitė, among many others.

Contact

Direct queries to renato@physikinvest.com or Renato Capelj#8625 on Discord.

Disclaimer

Do not construe this newsletter as advice. All content is for informational purposes.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 9, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 1,200+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 8:45 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Fundamental

A crypto-market leader and a lender of last resort – FTX – co-founded by Sam Bankman-Fried (SBF) was little questioned by many. It appears, however, that the company had growing pain points.

Events are developing quickly, too add. Here is a note that SBF issued to investors after entering into a nonbinding agreement with Binance.

Graphic: Retrieved from @gurgavin on Twitter. Read the story on The Block.

In short, there’s little substance.

Let’s go through the motions and start unpacking this debacle. Should we have loose ends, we’ll address those in the coming days.

In late December of 2021, I spoke with SBF regarding his background and aims with FTX. The resulting work was published on Benzinga.com, where I continue to work part-time as a writer and project lead.

Graphic: Retrieved from Renato Leonard Capelj. On the top is Renato Leonard Capelj. On the bottom is SBF.

In short, SBF is an MIT alumnus who started in finance at Jane Street, a trading firm and liquidity provider. Eventually, he saw an opportunity elsewhere; there were spot price inconsistencies across cryptocurrency exchanges.

SBF then founded the firm Alameda Research in 2017. A focus, there, was to extract premiums to spot via arbitrage. SBF et al would purchase Bitcoin (CRYPTO: BTC) domestically, send it to foreign exchanges to sell at higher prices, and, then, convert and wire the funds back. 

​​“You do have to put together this incredibly sophisticated global corporate framework in order to be able to actually do this trade,” SBF said in one conversation. “That’s the real task, the real hard part.”

In light of some frustration with existing exchange offers, SBF founded FTX.com and FTX.US parent FTX Trading Ltd. As late as September 2022, FTX was seeking $1 billion at a value of $32 billion. The firm was looking to become a one-stop-shop for retail and institutional market participants such as FTX brand ambassador and spokesperson Kevin O’Leary who I talked to just prior to my interview with SBF.

“If you’re being compliant internally and also with regulators in each jurisdiction you operate in, you don’t have the option to be off-sides,” O’Leary explained to me on FTX building one of the larger infrastructures institutions’ compliance departments could easily “work with and external auditors can audit.”

Eventually, the exchange grew to become a major player.

FTX was a top-five exchange, adding market share through acquisitions of players like Blockfolio and LedgerX, as well as building a reputation of transparency, or so it appeared, through its work with regulators.

Adding, SBF said to me he wanted FTX to cater to other asset classes and “become a global liquidity venue across the board.” In mid-to-late this year, FTX added stock trading via no-fee brokerage accounts, a follow-through on his vision.

The expansion narrative cooled, however. There was the collapse of the TerraUSD stablecoin, Celsius Network, Three Arrows Capital, and Voyager Digital, which FTX’s subsidiary in the US, FTX.US, won assets to in an auction this year.

At the surface, it appeared FTX was “seemingly untouchable,” as Immutable Holdings’ Jordan Fried explained online. Check out my last chat with Jordan Fried, here.

However, “cracks started to appear [and] people in crypto were taking notice”; the CEOs of both Alameda Research and FTX.US stepped down. Fried added that the situation worsened when Alameda Research’s balance sheet was leaked.

The firm had $14.6 billion in assets (nearly $4 billion in FTT, which is FTX’s utility token, and about $2 billion in FTT token collateral) against $8 billion in liabilities.

“Binance owns a bunch of FTT themselves and, two days ago, Changpeng Zhao (CZ) [who is the] founder of Binance, [said] that SBF … could be lobbying to get regulators to help out FTX more than Binance.” In response, CZ was to “dump all $2 billion of FTT” Binance was holding.

This coincided with a large selling pressure on the FTX utility token. With Alameda Research having ~50% of their assets in FTT, Fried says, “they were dead in the water”. A run appeared likely and, with FTX and Alameda Research’s dealings so intertwined, “the failure of one meant the failure of another.”

On the heels of billions in withdrawals, users weren’t “getting their cash” and, ultimately, in SBF seeking to protect users’ assets, FTX entered into a strategic transaction with Binance.

The follow-on impacts of this week’s events, during which SBF saw a ~90% wipeout of his wealth, can be speculated on. Apparent losers include SoftBank Group Corporation’s (OTC: SFTBY) Vision Fund, the Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan, and Tiger Global Management.

Some, including Arthur Breitman of Tezos (CRYPTO: XTZ), mulled the impact of FTX’s potential divestment from Solana (CRYPTO: SOL) which “took a drubbing Tuesday,” along with just about every other crypto token including Bitcoin.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

Noteworthy are the impacts of this crypto-market turmoil in equities. As I stated in a note to SpotGamma subscribers yesterday, following “news of a liquidity crunch at FTX, when the selling accelerated in FTT [] and Bitcoin, so did the selling in the S&P 500.”

“The bottom, in all three products, happened at 2:30 PM ET.”

Graphic: Retrieved by Physik Invest from TradingView.

I add that these products – S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) and Bitcoin – have traded in sync and held positive correlations.

In short, both are recipients of the same risk-on and -off flows. Easy monetary policies cut financial asset volatility and pushed market participants into riskier investments. In short, it was easier to borrow and make longer-duration bets on ideas (e.g., crypto and Ponzi-like DeFi, growth, risky private equity investments) with a lot of promise in the future. 

Financial asset investments were more attractive. That’s, in part, why we saw asset inflation early on in 2020 when policymakers embarked on historic interventions.

Monetary authorities cut interest rates and bought bonds, all the while money was sent to people. Risk assets were the first to respond. Then, as the economy reopened, demand picked up, supply chains tightened, and prices in the real economy inflated.

As we added on Monday, de-globalization and persistent supply chokepoints (e.g., Ukraine and Russia) have done little to help. Inflation remains a problem and investors are seeking safety amid Fed intervention. 

Financial assets are in less demand while real assets are in more demand. A disruption (or reversal) in these policies puts at risk the prevailing carry regime. A stock and crypto market drop is, in part, the result of an unwind in carry. 

The drop is a deflationary shock, precisely what policymakers are seeking, per Credit Suisse Group AG’s (NYSE: CS) Zoltan Pozsar who says inflation is a structural issue, and “we [have] to generate a round of negative wealth effects to lower demand such that it becomes more in line with the new realities of supply.” 

As we established on Monday, that invokes “collateral damage to the US economy,” S&P Global Inc (NYSE: SPGI) economists have put forth “as households and businesses pull back spending and investment.” 

For example, just announced today, Meta Platforms Inc (NASDAQ: META), which became wrapped up in the speculativeness of the early 2020s reaching beyond the crypto markets, hence the name change from Facebook Inc, is seeking to cut 11,000 jobs.

Per Bloomberg, “the macroeconomic downturn, increased competition, and ads signal loss have caused [] revenue to be much lower than expected.”

Ultimately, a deflationary pulse manifesting disinflation in consumer prices may prompt the policymakers to reverse on rates and efforts like quantitative tightening (QT), the (out)flow of capital from capital markets.

We’re seeing demand erode and many businesses starting to suffer the effects of a switch to “just-in-case” from “just-in-time,” according to S&P Global Inc. Inventories (which are to be sold at a loss) are piling up and workers are needed less.

That’s a recession.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. “The overhang is leading to canceled orders, a sharp slowdown in global trade growth and stagnating factory activity. On one hand, it’s good that logistics networks are seeing relief from the logjams that plagued the start of 2022 — ocean-shipping rates have tumbled close to pre-pandemic levels and delivery times are shortening.”

This said, the “risk of recession, whether it is real or merely implied by an inversion of the yield curve, won’t deter the Fed from hiking rates higher faster or from injecting more volatility to build up negative wealth effects.”

“Rallies could beget more forceful pushback from the Fed,” which is a concern given the poor performance in implied volatility (IVOL) that’s resulted in participants’ disinterest in maintaining their hedges this year; equities’ left tail is growing.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. Initially created by QVR Advisors. “When shares drop, demand for fresh protection remains subdued given the unusually thin positioning among big money. At the same time, put owners quickly book profits, often leading to a drop in implied vol.

In summary, there’s no longer “a disinterest and unimportance to cash flows.” The commitment to reducing liquidity and credit has consequences on the real economy and asset prices which rose and kept the deflationary pressure of policies at bay.  

It is elevated volatility and persistent declines that are to prompt investors to lower their selling prices in risk(ier) assets (e.g., options bets, metals, cryptocurrency and stablecoins, equities, bonds), and compete for cash.

Positioning

Based on traders’ current positioning, the market, absent exogenous shocks, is more so prone to sharp upside reversals and a slow(er) grind lower.

As the former Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan explained to me once, therefore, you “want Deltas and leverage” via options trades that are defined risk and two-to-four months out in maturity.

We shall go more into this, later.

Technical

As of 8:45 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the lower part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

If above the $3,828.75 HVNode, the $3,874.25 HVNode is in play. Initiative trade beyond the latter could reach as high as the $3,909.25 MCPOC and $3,936.25 ONH, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

If above the $3,828.75 HVNode, the $3,806.25 LVNode is in play. Initiative trade beyond the latter could reach as low as the $3,787.00 VPOC and $3,727.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 7, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 1,190+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 11:00 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Administrative

After a one-month hiatus, the Daily Brief by Physik Invest is back, albeit with new inspiration and direction.

Previously, the letter was focused on analyses of secondary and tertiary sources. New for the letter will be the inclusion of primary source information. It will be some time before these changes are most noticeable but that’s the general direction.

For instance, interviewing a country’s economic minister on policy and discussing how that policy impacts markets, at the end of it all, is on the table.

That said, apologies for not being there for the past month. I found a lot happened and I could not rid myself of the desire to unpack. This letter helps me structure trades through which real capital is at risk.

Not having the full picture did me a disservice, in short.

Going forward, I will try to feature a good mix of detail and pointedness. Take care and I look forward to learning and earning together!

Fundamental

Weekend news was centered around the tightening of financial conditions, the impact of central bank action, as well as geopolitics (e.g., Lithuania opening a trade office in Taiwan), and supply chokepoints.

By happenstance, I interviewed the Lithuanian Economy Minister Ausrine Armonaite, quoted by Bloomberg in the above story, last week in Lisbon. More on this, later.

Graphic: Provided by the Lithuanian Delegation. Left, Lithuanian Economy Minister Ausrine Armonaite. Right, Renato Leonard Capelj conducting an interview on behalf of Benzinga.com.

The One Big Thing:

With labor still tight, former New York Fed President Bill Dudley commented that “there’s a lot of work to do … [so] inflation expectations don’t become unanchored” and force “something really, really harsh later.”

Unfortunately, the impact of actions here, in the US, is not isolated.

US tightening pains the rest of the world, too. Stronger dollars pressure emerging-market economies with dollar-denominated debts. This, ultimately, works to upend the dollar’s role as a reserve.

Margin Compression, Dollar Debt:

Dollar strength feeds margin compression (just now filtering through, according to Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, and impacting dollar-denominated debt), adding to the “billion[s] less in demand for assets per day” via quantitative tightening (QT).

As a refresher, quantitative easing (QE) lowers interest rates and makes investments in financial assets more attractive. This bolsters asset inflation and deflation in the real economy.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. The chart is an example showing “money-printing or ‘quantitative easing’ that [Ben Bernanke] pioneered seemed to prop up the stock market.”

QT Compounds Rising Rate Impact:

Moreover, in 2020, policymakers embarked on historic interventions.

Monetary authorities cut interest rates and bought bonds, all the while money was sent to people. Risk assets were the first to respond. Then, as the economy reopened, demand picked up, supply chains (that were slowed) tightened, and prices in the real economy inflated.

Threats to globalization and persistent supply chokepoints (e.g., Ukraine and Russia) have done little to help. Inflation remains a problem and investors are seeking safety amid Fed intervention. 

Financial assets are in less demand while real assets are in more demand; sticky inflation and the policymaker reactions are putting in jeopardy dollar carry (mentioned above) and the S&P 500, a focus point for this letter and a center of the global carry regime, among other things.

Responses Invoke Collateral Damage:

As Credit Suisse Group AG’s Zoltan Pozsar summarizes, inflation is a structural issue, and “we [have] to generate a round of negative wealth effects to lower demand such that it becomes more in line with the new realities of supply.”

That invokes “collateral damage to the US economy,” S&P Global Inc (NYSE: SPGI) economists have put forth “as households and businesses pull back spending and investment.” 

Ultimately, “[a]s demand erodes, businesses that changed inventory strategy to ‘just-in-case’ from ‘just-in-time’ are left with full shelves to unwind at a loss and less need for workers that were in high demand just a few months ago.” That’s a recession.

Positioning

Equity market implied volatility (IVOL) remains subdued and part of the blame rests on the (1) growth of derivatives and …

Graphic: Retrieved from Goldman Sachs Group Inc (NYSE: GS). Reposted by Rob Emrich III.

(2) a lower liquidity environment in which the hedging of these derivatives matters more.

Graphic: Retrieved from Goldman Sachs Group Inc (NYSE: GS). Taken from The Market Ear.

To recap, equity IVOL remains subdued, in part, because traders hedged into the 2022 decline.

The liquidity providers’ response to the monetization of protection (i.e., trader sell put → liquidity provider buy put and stock and/or futures to hedge), as well as decreases in demand for equity exposure (and new protection), is keeping the Cboe Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) tame while measures such as the Merrill Lynch Options Volatility Estimate (INDEX: MOVE) are surging.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

As well put in a recent Bloomberg article quoting QVR Advisors’ Benn Eifert, “[e]veryone was prepared for another jarring market crash, and that, in essence, is why certain categories of protective options have failed to pay off this year.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. Initially created by QVR Advisors. “When shares drop, demand for fresh protection remains subdued given the unusually thin positioning among big money. At the same time, put owners quickly book profits, often leading to a drop in implied vol. 

In support, IPS Strategic Capital’s Pat Hennessy puts forth that equity positioning is light and, “[I]f you have little to no equity exposure to hedge, why would you be buying puts?” That is all the while “[t]he last 5 years is still fresh in PMs heads though. This means that they have been quick to buy calls on any sign of a market bounce.” 

The first takeaways are that the above forces discussed have made for an orderly sell-off and the occasional quick reversal, particularly with more options activity spread across shorter-dated contracts where options (and hedging) are more sensitive.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

Another takeaway is that with skew at “near all-time lows, … [and] the highest rates we’ve seen in 15 years, [] longer dated collars [are] an attractive trade for those who are worried about the performance of stocks over the next year but do not want to sell or try timing the market.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Pat Hennessy of IPS Strategic Capital.

A last big takeaway includes some loss of structural support from hedging flows.

To explain, often, traders hedge into impactful events such as elections and Fed rate decisions. The demand for protection will pressure markets indirectly. After, however, the decay, as well as the removal of that protection, indirectly supports the market.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bespoke on Twitter. Into Fed days, traders often demand protection. Barring the worst case, traders’ closure of this protection bolsters a price rise, after. The same has been observed after elections (e.g., November 2020 election bottom).

As it sits, traders are hedged into events such as the elections. Per SpotGamma, “[i]f nothing bad happens, and traders close those puts, that would likely bolster a rally.”

This coincides with the market’s entry into a period of lower liquidity (i.e., the holiday season). It’s during this period the effects of decay accelerate and a lack of liquidity, per Karsan, makes markets sensitive to those positive positioning flows.

Ultimately, the very poor hedging that’s going on, heading into the next rally, is going to set the stage for a large tail, Karsan adds. Traders, who aren’t as well hedged, will seek protection and this will pressure markets, adding to any macro-type selling.

More explanation in the coming letters.

Technical

As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,806.25 LVNode puts into play the $3,845.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $3,874.25 HVNode and $3,909.25 MCPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,806.25 LVNode puts into play the $3,773.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $3,727.00 and $3,685.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Considerations: Futures tied to the S&P 500 are trading within close proximity to a blue line in the above graphic. This blue line depicts a volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored to price action following the release of consumer price data on September 13, 2022.

The VWAP metric is highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for the quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Should the S&P 500 auction away from this level, and come back to it, a prudent response is to fade. If the price is above the VWAP, and it auctions lower, into the VWAP, traders would buy. On the other hand, if the price is below the VWAP, and it auctions higher, into the VWAP, sell.

At this time, S&P 500 prices are near VWAP offering traders lower (directional) opportunities.


Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.


Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 6, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 1000+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 8:00 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Administrative

Good morning, team! Appreciate you opening up this email and reading through the newsletter. 

Over the span of two or so years, on Substack and Physik Invest’s website, issued daily was this letter you, alongside about 1,000 others, are subscribed to.

This newsletter went from about 400 subscribers in July to 1,000 in October, a 150% increase. Thank you to fx:macro, The Morning Hark, The Transcript, and twenty others who, in large part, made that increase happen.

From hereon, gun to the head, I (your letter writer) can’t tell where this newsletter is going. 

In short, this letter served as a tool for me to improve and keep me aware. It was years ago that markets were a dream I was in steadfast pursuit of; I sought mentorship, studied, saved money, and, ultimately, made it a successful full-time gig. 

This letter helped keep me committed to continuous improvement. Sure the money was great, but how do you keep that flow when times get tough? That is something this letter helped me achieve. I hope it’s done the same for you.

At the same time, to weather the storms (periods of inactivity or low earnings while trading like now), I continued my work at places like Benzinga and SpotGamma.

Probably shaved a few years off my life expectancy but the effect was a net positive, I believe. 

That said, in our own way, each and every one of us wants to level up, and that is what makes it difficult for me to promise where this newsletter may go. Speaking bluntly, I am faced with some good problems; e.g., should I raise money and build a fund? Work at an institution? Pivot to PE or, even, government work? Go back to school? Can’t tell you, yet.

What the next step will be I am not sure. Regardless, I intend to keep you fully in the loop. 

As I set out and travel over the next 30 days, I’ll be doing a lot of thinking and, though the frequency of issued letters may change, briefly, the result may be better letters potentially spanning areas far beyond the S&P and the factors that are driving it.

Definitely am open to feedback. Appreciate you for joining the community and staying on board! 

PS: Two things.

First, I’ll be in London and Lisbon over the next month. If you’re in either of the two cities, reach me on Telegram (@renatolcapelj) and/or Discord (Renato Capelj#8625). 

Maybe a coffee?

Second, I spent the past half-year helping Benzinga build an awesome fintech event coming to New York City this December 8, 2022. Organizations such as FIS, Fireblocks, Truist, Symbiont, State Street, Vanguard, Northern Trust, Partisia, and Apex Clearing are a few that will be there.

If you want to network with the best, let me know and I’ll try to get you a ticket!

Regards,

Renato

Fundamental

An eventful week. 

News, today, was focused on Federal Reserve (Fed) officials not planning to cut interest rates next year, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agreeing to a supply cut, the UK mulling first-time home buyer program extensions, and Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS) seeking investment to help spin off its advisory and investment banking units.

Please check out the Physik Invest archives and upcoming letters for more on the impact.

Positioning

Bloomberg reported yesterday a big trade fired off mid-day propelling the S&P 500 higher into the close. The trade consisted of +20,000 OCT $4,500.00, +14,000 MAR $4,300.00 calls, and -48,000 JAN $4,500.00 calls. 

The trade leaves the participant(s) with positive Delta. The other side has exposure to negative Delta meaning they lose money if the S&P 500 is higher, all else equal. To hedge this negative Delta, counterparties buy futures (positive Delta) and that has a positive impact.

According to SpotGamma, though, there needs to be more impactful bullish call repositioning or a market rise that’s large enough to solicit volatility-dampening hedging from counterparties.

Until the last-mentioned happens, the market may continue to balance in a larger range.

Technical

As of 8:00 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the lower part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,771.25 HVNode puts into play the $3,826.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the last-mentioned could reach as high as the $3,862.25 HVNode and $3,893.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,771.25 HVNode puts into play the $3,722.50 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $3,671.00 VPOC and $3,610.75 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 4, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 990+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 9:20 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Fundamental

Fresh and top of mind, still, is the Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS) debacle. However, despite the bank’s “critical moment,” as discussed in yesterday’s letter, credit default swap (CDS) levels, though still rising, are “far from distressed.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Reuters.

Adding, not reflected by the stock is a “strong capital base and liquidity position,” per CS.

Graphic: Retrieved from Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS).

A big topic speculated on was CS’ probability of default. At its core, CDS spreads relate to the probability of default in the following way, per Deutsche Bank AG (NYSE: DB) research

(CDS Spread) / (1 – Recovery Rate) = Implied Probability Of Default.

The recovery rate is basically the (estimated) amount of a loan that will be repaid in the case of a bankruptcy or default. Per European Central Bank research, “the standard recovery rate used by the industry in price calculations is 40%.”

Roughly speaking, below is a quick calculation:

250 basis points / (1 – 0.40) = 416.67 basis points = 4.17% Implied Probability Of Default

In CS’ case, if the spread is 250 basis points, assuming a 40% recovery, that’s a 4.17% default probability implied. If the spread was at 150 basis points, then, assuming a 40% recovery, that’s a 2.5% chance of default.

Graphic: Taken from @EffMktHype who retrieved from Bloomberg. “So many [Bloomberg] screenshots of CS CDS levels and talking about massive default prob numbers. Zero people actually using [the] same terminal to look at default risk screen.”

Taken together, in short, similar to as we put forth, yesterday, “[t]his is not 2008,” per Citigroup Inc’s (NYSE: C) Andrew Coombs. Bloomberg adds that Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) faced its own credit spread debacle during 2011 European debt exposure rumors; “it took months for the price of the default swaps to fall as the feared losses never materialized.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Reuters.

Ahead of an October 27 CS review covering topics including “a large-scale investment banking retreat, … [i]nvestors are worried about how much the bank will [have to] cover” a restructuring.

Bloomberg adds: “A sale of Credit Suisse’s structured-products group, which trades securitized debt, has attracted interest from potential buyers, … [amid] rising interest rates.”

Per UBS Group AG (NYSE: UBS) research, a sale of such businesses, which may be worth more than the market is currently implying, “could help to avoid a dilutive capital increase.”

Positioning

“Month-end portfolio rebalances and [the] expiration of quarterly option strategies [acted] in support of the market,” JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) Marko Kolanovic stated in a September 30, 2022 commentary titled “Throwing rocks in glass houses.”

In that same commentary, Kolanovic eased support for his 2022 price targets on economic volatility led by central banks, the war in Europe, and beyond.

As stated last week, per Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, it’s the case that the removal of options strategies and potential supply of protection (as investors further come to the realization that options protection has done little to protect against downside) may provide markets a boost.

Graphic: Taken from @Alpha_Ex_LLC who retrieved from Bloomberg. S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) October put option lower in price and volatility.

Ultimately, though, a final resolution would be “tied to the incremental effects on liquidity,” (e.g., QT manifesting itself as “$4.5 billion less in demand for assets per day,” and buyback blackout) while options repositioning may make the case for increased fragility, as traders’ falling demand for put protection opens the door to less supportive hedging flows with respect to time (Charm) and volatility (Vanna) changes.

Graphic: Retrieved from SqueezeMetrics.

Therefore, trades such as the Short Ratio Put Spread, particularly if narrower, may be far riskier to employ into the end of this year and the middle half of next year. For context, this was a trade to have on this year.

As participants continue to make the aforementioned realizations and supply to the market put (downside protection), tails may “continue to be cheap,” and discount “crash risk,” according to The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial.

A lot more to resolve this jumbled mess of a newsletter in the coming days.

Technical

As of 9:10 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,771.25 HVNode puts into play the $3,826.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the last-mentioned could reach as high as the $3,862.25 HVNode and $3,893.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,771.25 HVNode puts into play the $3,722.50 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $3,671.00 VPOC and $3,610.75 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 3, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 980+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 8:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Administrative

Ended last week on a strong note and started this week on a lighter, less impactful note. 

Separately, due to travel commitments, there may be inconsistency in the frequency of posts in the coming weeks, particularly October 10-21, 2022.

Fundamental

A lot of noise this weekend. Top headlines and posts on social media concerned the stability of Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS), for one, which is slated to open about 5% lower today.

CEO Ulrich Koerner said the bank is at a “critical moment” while stressing stock prices did not reflect its “​​strong capital base and liquidity position.” The bank’s key capital ratio sits at 13.5%, higher than what Deutsche Bank AG (NYSE: DB) had in 2016 when it was in trouble.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. “Credit Suisse Group AG shares are now a “buy for the brave,” said Citigroup Inc. analysts on Monday.”

A hot topic, too, is the bank’s credit default swap (CDS) levels which “are still far from distressed and are part of a broad market selloff,” Bloomberg concludes.

For context, a CDS is a tool to hedge against the risk of some credit event (e.g., bankruptcy, a failure to pay, restructuring of debt, repudiation/moratorium, and obligation acceleration or an obligation default). The settlement of a CDS involves the exchanging of bonds for their par value or a cash payment equal to the difference between par and the bond’s market value.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. “There is now a roughly 23% chance the bank defaults on its bonds within 5 years.” A CDS spread at – say 250 bps – “assuming a recovery of zero,” implies an annual default probability of 2.5%.

Moreover, in spite of all the discussion and debate online, “Credit Suisse is not creating anything like the angst we experienced [in 2008],” said columnist John Authers.

If no bailout is needed, “as the CEO’s memo endeavors to show, then all the talk has left it very much oversold.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. CS trades at less than book value (assets less liabilities).

In other news, Liz Truss, the Prime Minister of the UK, shifted her focus from some fiscal stimuli which “bec[ame] a distraction from [the] mission to get Britain moving.”

“Our focus now is on building a high growth economy that funds world-class public services, boosts wages, and creates opportunities across the country.”

For context, the last week was filled with excitement overseas, we explained in detail Monday through Friday.

In short, the announcement of new fiscal policies coincided with market volatility that prompted reflexive feedback loops and the risk of default among some pension schemes.

Some of those announcements were walked back and UK volatility eased. 

Moving on. 

Oil was bid on news that OPEC+ is considering a cut to production in excess of a million barrels per day. This is as they look to “pre-empt” potential surpluses amid waning demand and the sale of oil from the US’s Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) into November.

Graphic: Retrieved from CME Group Inc (NASDAQ: CME). “SPR release has helped tame oil prices.”

Waning demand is showing up in other areas; factor activity is falling on a slowdown, globally, as policymakers tighten and clamp down on excesses. Just yesterday, the Wall Street Journal reported that cargo shipowners were canceling sailings as shipping rates, discussed last week, plunged ~75%.

Positioning

Top of mind, for many, last week was the trade, repositioning, and/or removal of large options positions coinciding with the September Quarterly Options Expiration (OPEX).

Notwithstanding, per SpotGamma data, the “expiration isn’t particularly impressive” as there is likely far “more potential market impact” expected in October and December.

Graphic: Retrieved from SpotGamma.

Still, there was a removal of a lot of put Delta. SpotGamma sees counterparties as having positive Delta (directional) exposure via short put (i.e., meaning the trade loses money if the underlying trades lower). This opens the door to relief as counterparties reposition and trim exposure to their negative Delta (offsetting) hedges via futures and/or stock.

“We believe that the expiration of large put positions can be turning points for market rallies.”

Technical

As of 7:00 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,610.75 HVNode puts into play the $3,653.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $3,688.75 HVNode and $3,722.50 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,610.75 HVNode puts into play the $3,554.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the last-mentioned could reach as low as the $3,506.25 and $3,444.75 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For September 28, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 970+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 8:20 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Administrative

Apologies, team, if the quality was lacking these past few days. Extremely busy on my end and I look forward to some detailed letters in the near future! – Renato

Fundamental

“Great powers are waging hot wars involving the flow of technologies, goods, and commodities.”

That’s according to Credit Suisse Group AG’s (NYSE: CS) Zoltan Pozsar who believes that the pillars forming the context for a low-inflation world are changing, and this is setting the stage for longer-lasting structural inflation.

In short, inflationary impulses are incoming from non-linear geopolitical and economic conflicts. 

Just yesterday, Europe was investigating attacks on pipelines from Russia; there were “major leaks into the Baltic Sea from two Russian gas pipelines at the cent[er] of an energy standoff.”

“The word sabotage springs to mind,” Javier Blas of Bloomberg, said. “In a single day, the conduits, which link Russia with Germany under the Baltic Sea, have suffered not one, not two, but three separate major leaks.”

Per reports by Refinitiv, seismologists nearby registered “powerful blasts” that “do not resemble signals from earthquakes.” Instead, the explosions likely correspond with hundreds of “kilos (kg) of dynamite.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. 

Given that Nordstream 1 and 2 are not operational, now, the “leaks are more likely a message: [if truly the culprit], Russia is opening a new front on its energy war against Europe.” 

Accordingly, gas prices were higher but “below this year’s peaks,” Refinitiv reported. Generally, across some benchmarks, prices read “more than 200%, higher than in early September 2021.”

Separately, the Bank of England (BoE) is delaying quantitative-tightening (QT) bond sales and opting to purchase longer-dated government bonds in an attempt to restore stability, which we discussed was at risk on Monday and Tuesday.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. Credit Default Swaps (CDSs) are a tool for investors to offload credit risk to other market participants.

As a result, after a near-vertical drop (visible below) in Gilts and British corporate bonds (which impacted mortgage lending, for one), UK yields saw some of their biggest drops on record.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. Updated September 26, 2022.

The actions over the past few days complicate the Monetary Policy Committee’s (MPC) objective to reach a return to 2% inflation in the medium term.

Graphic: Retrieved, initially, from Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC). Via The Transcript. Interest rates “may be higher for longer” than expected.

At home, here, in the US, yields on the 10-year topped 4.00%. There is a heightened chance of a Federal Reserve (Fed) bump in rates that brings the target rate to 375-400 basis points, while the UK, in stemming its inflationary pressures, is expected to bump by double that amount.

The action to stem inflation is feeding through to demand. Apple Inc (NASDAQ: AAPL) said it would ease plans to boost iPhone production “after an anticipated surge in demand failed to materialize,” a Bloomberg report said

“The supply constraints pulling down on the market since last year have eased and the industry has shifted to a demand-constrained market,” said Nabila Popal, research director at IDC. 

“High inventory in channels and low demand with no signs of immediate recovery has OEMs panicking and cutting their orders drastically for 2022,” a fear we said ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood shared, not too long ago.

Positioning

The beginning of the week was characterized by a sideways-to-lower S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) and implied volatility (IVOL) metrics, such as the Cboe Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX), rising.

Per IVOL the term structure, demand for options protections seems to be concentrated in options that are shorter-dated and far more sensitive to changes in direction and volatility.

That means for large shifts in price and/or volatility, hedging ratios (e.g., Delta) shift markedly, too. This prompts “hedging feedback mechanisms in both market directions,” per SpotGamma.

Graphic: Retrieved from VIX Central. Taken from The Market Ear. Updated 9/27/2022.

Moreover, the risks are skewed to the upside, SpotGamma added. 

“For pumped-up options far from the money to retain their value, there essentially needs to be an adverse move (in price and volatility). Should nothing bad happen, the probability of these options paying out will fade, as will their exposure to direction (or Delta). [In] re-hedg[ing] decreased exposure to Delta, liquidity providers [] may provide the market with a boost.”

Graphic: Retrieved from SpotGamma. SPX prices X-axis. Option delta Y-axis. When the factors of implied volatility (Vanna) and time change (Charm), hedging ratios change. The graphic is for illustrational purposes, only.

At the same time, there appears to be some “dealer disintermediation” amid “less incentive to make deep, tight markets” due to “capital constraints,” potentially, explained SqueezeMetrics, the creator of the DIX (Dark Pool Index).

This comes after months of high average readings in DIX (likely as market-makers assembled “basket[s] of S&P 500 stocks to create ETF shares, or to hedge away the exposure of a futures contract[s]”). Typically, high DIX readings are associated with stronger 1-month market returns, particularly when put flows are strong (i.e., lower Gamma exposure readings, like now).

Graphic: Retrieved from SqueezeMetrics.

Overall, the trend change is “suggestive of some second thoughts from the [buy-the-dip] crowd, and perhaps (likely!) some deleveraging from elsewhere,” SqueezeMetrics ended.

Technical

As of 8:20 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,638.25 LVNode puts into play the $3,688.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as high as the $3,722.50 LVNode and $3,771.25 HVnode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,638.25 LVNode puts into play the $3,610.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $3,554.75 and $3,506.25 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For September 12, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 900+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 7:30 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Administrative

Hey team, before we get started, let’s address the mismatch some observed last week with this letter’s levels and S&P quotes, versus what they saw at home. 

It is basically the case that our charting platform rolled over to the December S&P 500 Index futures contract on September 9, 2022. This was about 1-week ahead of the expiry of the old contract on September 16, 2022.

Going forward, unless otherwise noted, 6-days prior to the expiration of a quoted contract, the levels and prices in this letter may reflect that of the new, father-dated contract.

As an aside, based on CME Group Inc’s (NASDAQ: CME) Equity Quarterly Roll Analyzer Tool, the pace of the E-mini S&P 500 (FUTURE: /ES) roll is far off of what it has historically been at this stage of the roll period. 

This roll, too, caught your letter’s writer by surprise. Sorry!

Graphic: Retrieved from CME Group Inc (NASDAQ: CME).

Moving on, coverage this week may be sporadic due to some uncertain travel commitments. It is seeming very likely that there may not be a letter published on September 13 and 14, 2022.

Fundamental

Let’s get into it.

At its core, there’s a lot of stuff happening on the monetary and fiscal front. Guiding some of this action, on those fronts, are (geo)political happenings, the rising tide of populism, and beyond.

On the political fronts, Ukrainians “broke through weakened Russian lines, seizing the strategic railway hub of Kupiansk and the key staging area of Izyum,” Noah Smith explained in his letter.

Recent happenings illustrate “some important principles about the broader conflict unfolding across our world between liberalism and illiberalism,” as well as what a “successful defense of Ukraine” would do to hurt “the dawn of a new age of imperial expansionism,” something we’ve talked a lot about in past letters, alongside the growing deglobalization pulse.

The go-to on the implications of these conflicts, as well as the “burgeoning monetary order,” dubbed Bretton Woods III, has been Credit Suisse Group AG’s (NYSE: CS) Zoltan Pozsar who thinks the dollar “is entering a new and rockier phase” and what “matters more than access to dollars is access to commodities and actual things.”

From hereon, Pozsar thinks “commodity prices can go much higher, … and a dollar can get devalued in terms of commodities.”

In the face of geopolitical and supply chokepoints (further bolstered by such things as railroad strikes), as well as the fragmentation of “the physical world,” it’s no “longer appropriate to think about the world as a unified whole,” Pozsar explains.

Potentially at hand is a “self-reinforcing ‘dollar doom loop,’” Jon Turek of JST Advisors adds in the earlier quoted article. That’s big since, as we once explained, the dollar is the dominant currency for carry due to the easy monetary policies that removed the risk of a strong dollar. 

“Non-US entities make dollar-based loans and transactions … because it’s considered more trustworthy than native fiat,” Bankless explained. “When there’s a disruption in global cash flows, there’s effectively a short squeeze on the dollar.” 

Therefore, while efforts to stem inflation bolstered by supply chokepoints continue, “the stronger the dollar gets in comparison, the less tenable it becomes as a global reserve.”

That is pressure on the long-term trajectory of the dollar.

Ultimately, through the earlier mentioned developments, “breaking the dollar’s dominance could arguably help some countries avoid a tightening of financial conditions,” Bloomberg explains.

Accordingly, with “the dollar’s peak [] already in the rearview mirror,” concerns are amped in regard to how this impacts U.S. markets. It’s the case that U.S. market liquidity, as well as the dollar’s strong role as a reserve, put the S&P 500 at the center of the global carry regime. 

Thus, an unwinding of carry may compound a market drop affecting nearly all risk assets, even housing, and prompting recession, something we shall unpack further in coming letters.

Graphic: Retrieved from The Market Ear. Via Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS). “MS Research thinks the lows for this bear market will likely arrive in the fourth quarter with 3,400 the minimum downside and 3,000 the low if a recession arrives.”

To round out this section, a bull case is likely characterized by less outsized interest rate hikes here, in the US, with quantitative tightening (QT) ramping “to its maximal caps” with no increase in “vol or yields,” said JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) market intelligence.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg.

However, if inflation remains hot – 8% and 9% – and supply disruptions remain sticky, the Fed may continue on its path of higher for longer. That means an “outsized rate hike cadence in Nov/Dec, bringing Fed Funds above 4.0% … and QT put[ting] upward pressure on yields.”

Graphic: Retrieved from Callum Thomas. Via Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC). Market bottoms often appear when the Federal Reserve (Fed) begins cutting interest rates.

Positioning

Demand for protection and re-entry into shorts was the context for selling that culminated in an S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) low at $3,900.00 last week. 

It’s at this level, “where the demand for put options was concentrated,” analysis providers like SpotGamma saw “support” and, “absent an exogenous catalyst,” S&P 500 stability.

From thereon, into the end of the week, SpotGamma adds that “positive delta hedging flows” bolstered a “market move away from the $3,900.00 support.” Tools like SpotGamma’s HIRO showed volatility selling and this validated a SpotGamma call for “follow-on bullishness.”

Graphic: Retrieved from SpotGamma. Updated September 7, 2022.

Nonetheless, in light of the above fundamental and positioning contexts, after derivatives expiries this month, the stage is likely set for larger two-way ranges.

Technical

As of 7:20 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a balanced overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $4,107.00 POC puts into play the $4,136.75 MCPOC. Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as high as the $4,189.25 LVNode and $4,231.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $4,107.00 POC puts into play the $4,071.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $4,018.75 HVNode and $3,991.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For September 9, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 850+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 8:00 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Fundamental

As much as it may be a so-called chart crime to overlap past market environments and project or forecast what may happen, it’s quite eerie that today’s path of returns appears similar to that of 1394-1937, 2005-2008, and 1997-2001, for example.

Graphic: Retrieved from Deutsche Bank AG (NYSE: DB).

Moreover, this time around, it’s the case that markets have fallen on participants’ pricing of higher interest rates and quantitative tightening (QT). 

Graphic: Retrieved from The Market Ear. Via Guggenheim Partners.

Some argue there is more to go on the pricing of a potential economic slowing happening here, in the U.S., abroad in China, and beyond.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. “Earnings are related to the economic cycle, but not tightly, and expectations for next year are intertwined with macroeconomic concerns.”

Notwithstanding, and we will end the fundamental section with this, today, Credit Suisse Group AG’s (NYSE: CS) Jonathan Golub puts forth the following: 

“Although revisions are negative, projected EPS growth rates remain positive for the remainder of 2022-23. While 3Q growth has fallen to 4.7%, EPS should expand 9-10%, assuming similar beats as experienced in 2Q. Historically, earnings hold up best when inflation is elevated. Many investors are interpreting the recent decline in estimates as a harbinger to recession. Our work shows that in high inflationary periods (1973, 1980, 1981) earnings peak just 2 months prior to a recession’s onset. With EPS growth projections still positive, revisions would have to fall much more to signal an economic contraction.”

Positioning

Referring traders to a recent case study (HERE) on how to play this market environment, as well as the impacts of implied volatility (IVOL) compression September 8 (HERE).

After a period of sideways-to-lower, markets are rebounding, boosted by IVOL compression and traders’ re-positioning ahead of potential including inflation and monetary policy updates.

Notwithstanding, as Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan well explained to Charles Schwab Corporation’s (NYSE: SCHW) TD Ameritrade Network, traders must look out for the “window of real risk.”

The energy for a downside move “is significant” after this year’s decimation of “skew and volatility,” he said. “Hedging for convexity is in the 5th percentile.”

This is because participants hedged heading into the decline, and sold skew as the markets explored lower. After the current period of volatility supply passes, Karsan added, and markets were to trade lower, there is the risk of a reach for protection and a fatter tail.

Graphic: Merrill Lynch Options Volatility Estimate (INDEX: MOVE), a measure of volatility for the US Treasury market, versus the Cboe Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX), a measure of volatility for the equity market, diverged this year. This is, in part, due to the supply of volatility in equities.

Should nothing happen, then the unwind of the recent speculation amongst “family offices and institutions front-running the speculative hedges that are more than 50 units,” will add support.

Graphic: Retrieved from SentimenTrader on September 7, 2022.

Technical

As of 6:40 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $4,069.25 HVNode puts into play the $4,107.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $4,136.75 MCPOC and $4,189.25 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $4,069.25 HVNode puts into play the $4,018.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $3,991.00 VPOC and $3,952.75 LVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Considerations: Responsiveness near key-technical areas (that are discernable visually on a chart), suggests technically-driven traders with short time horizons are very active. 

Such traders often lack the wherewithal to defend retests and, additionally, the type of trade may be indicative of the other time frame participants waiting for more information to initiate trades.

Graphic: Updated 9/8/2022. The daily chart of the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY).

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For September 8, 2022

The daily brief is a free glimpse into the prevailing fundamental and technical drivers of U.S. equity market products. Join the 850+ that read this report daily, below!

Graphic updated 7:15 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

Fundamental

Please pardon the light letter, team.

The Federal Reserve (Fed) Chair Jerome Powell will speak on monetary policy today at 9:10 AM ET. He is likely to embolden the tone set forth yesterday by the Fed’s Lael Brainard who said that higher rates for far longer seem necessary at this juncture.

The base case calls for a 75 basis point hike to interest rates this month, followed by 50 basis points in November, according to Goldman Sachs Group Inc (NYSE: GS) forecasts.

A quick check of the Eurodollar – which reflects the interest offered on U.S. dollar-denominated deposits held at banks outside of the U.S. (i.e., participants’ outlook on interest rates) – shows a peak in the overnight rate at 4.155% in February of 2023. From thereon, rate cuts are implied.

Graphic: Via Charles Schwab Corporation-owned (NYSE: SCHW) TD Ameritrade’s Thinkorswim.

It’s the case that monetary policies implemented resulted in too many dollars (still) chasing too few goods. We spoke on supply side dislocations last week and put forth that, from a monetary perspective, the Fed, among its peers like the ECB, can only and will tighten to stem inflationary pressures that are (to remain) structural.

Graphic: Retrieved from Bloomberg. “The number of references to the word ‘shortage’ in the Fed’s latest Beige Book report edged higher after declining for three straight reports, according to a Bloomberg tally. Job markets remained tight and labor shortages weighed on several sectors. That plus continued supply-chain snarls hampered manufacturing, the Fed said.”

It is the case that the economy is on a path that is “L”-shaped (i.e., vertical drop in activity via recession, and flatline for a period of time as rates remain higher for longer to prevent a sharp rise in inflation, again).

Zoltan Pozsar of Credit Suisse Group AG (NYSE: CS) puts forth that policymakers now have to “generate a round of negative wealth effects to lower demand such that it becomes more in line with the new realities of supply.”

Graphic: Via Physik Invest. Data compiled by @jkonopas623. Fed Balance Sheet data, here. Treasury General Account Data, here. Reverse Repo data, here. NL = BS – TGA – RRP.

Technical

Implied volatility (IVOL) is wound and markets are in an environment characterized by two-way ranges that are larger. Yesterday, we unpacked one way traders could have played the entry into this environment.

Further, as SpotGamma puts it well, a positive response to Powell’s remarks, into and through events such as the next update on consumer prices and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting, opens the door to IVOL compression and this would be “a boost for equities.”

Graphic: Retrieved from VIX Central.

That’s because the Delta risk counterparties are exposed to by holding short put options, for instance, reduces with falling IVOL. Accordingly, since the short puts carry less positive Delta, the counterparty reduces its negative Delta exposure via the underlying future or stock, which can support markets.

Graphic: Retrieved via SpotGamma’s Hedging Impact of Real-Time Options (HIRO) indicator. S&P 500 volatility selling coincides with a drop in IVOL and a price rise in the underlying.

Technical

As of 7:15 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, is likely to open in the middle part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades higher.

Any activity above the $3,988.25 HVNode puts into play the $4,018.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the latter could reach as high as the $4,064.00 RTH High and $4,107.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower.

Any activity below the $3,988.25 HVNode puts into play the $3,952.75 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $3,925.00 VPOC and $3,884.25 LVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures.

Considerations: Responsiveness near key-technical areas (that are discernable visually on a chart), suggests technically-driven traders with short time horizons are very active. 

Such traders often lack the wherewithal to defend retests and, additionally, the type of trade may be indicative of the other time frame participants waiting for more information to initiate trades.

Graphic: Daily chart of the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY).

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, mentorship, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Capelj also develops insights around impactful options market dynamics at SpotGamma and is a Benzinga reporter.

Some of his works include conversations with ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, investors Kevin O’Leary and John Chambers, FTX’s Sam Bankman-Fried, ex-Bridgewater Associate Andy Constan, Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan, The Ambrus Group’s Kris Sidial, among many others.

Disclaimer

In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.