Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 15, 2021

Editor’s Note: Yesterday, it came to my attention that the top-most graphic quoted outdated levels. Great time for that to happen, knowing that all upside levels came into play, haha!

My apologies for failing to update that graphic, properly. In the future, if you have concerns over levels, scroll to the bottom where you see the text: “Click here to load today’s updated real-time key levels.” By clicking, you will be directed to a real-time, updated TradingView chart.

If any other questions (or you simply want to stay in touch throughout the session), email me at renato@physikinvest.com. Happy trading!

Market Commentary

Equity index futures trade sideways to higher with most commodities. Volatility ebbs.

  • Strong balance sheets, investment, labor.
  • Ahead: Retail sales, sentiment, and more.
  • Positioning for responsive trade, balance.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to higher overnight alongside reports the economy will be supported by consumer balance sheets, business investment, and a healthy labor market.

Ahead is data on retail sales, the Import Price Index, the Empire State Index (8:30 AM ET), University of Michigan consumer sentiment and business inventories (10:00 AM ET), as well as Fed-speak by John Williams (12:20 PM ET). 

Graphic updated 6:00 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on strong intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred

After numerous sessions of a minimum separation in value (i.e., the area where 70% of the day’s volume occurred) failed to support downside price discovery, equity index futures established a rounded bottom before initiative buyers expanded range and value the opposite way.

In light of the recovery process, the S&P 500 – as evidenced by p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structures – finished, yesterday, just short of the $4,437.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) as momentum faded at key areas of resting liquidity.

Graphic: Screenshot of conditions, end-of-day Thursday. Equity indices, commodities, and bonds ended sideways to higher. The Nasdaq 100 led the S&P 500, Russell 2000, and Dow Jones Industrial Average, a clear change in tone. All key levels to the upside, yesterday, came into play; the $4,437.75 micro-composite point of control (MCPOC), which corresponded with resting market liquidity, marked an end to the discovery process.

In other words, the near-vertical price rise was sold responsively. This activity comes after participants saw days of responsive buying into the dip, earlier this week.

Taken together, the status quo remains responsive trade as participants look to balance (i.e., build out a base) ahead of new information. Once new information comes to light, participants will have a base to resolve and build on, directionally, into the end of this year.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Zooming out, we see the Nasdaq 100 coming into trend, Fibonacci, and volume-weighted average price (VWAP) resistance. This dynamic, alongside poor structure and divergent market liquidity metrics, promotes the responsive trade thesis.

Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE: SPY) top left, Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1 (NASDAQ: QQQ) top right, iShares Russell 2000 ETF (NYSE: IWM) bottom left, SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF Trust (NYSE: DIA) bottom right. Spending more than a few hours of trade above trend, VWAP (yellow), and the 61.80% Fibonacci retracement suggest good odds of upside continuation.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a seasonally bullish cycle of rebalancing and earnings, as well as the risks associated with a taper in asset purchases and a hike in rates.

“The economy is being supported by robust consumer balance sheets, rebounding business investment and a healthy labor market,” adds Hugh Gimber, global strategist at J.P. Morgan Asset Management.

In terms of positioning, coming into October 14, according to SpotGamma, the decay of customers’ long put hedges implied those taking the other side – dealers who warehouse short put risk – would cover their underlying hedges, bolstering the violent move higher.

“[T]his was a vanna/charm type rally back into major resistance. Said another way: we see this as a short cover rally, and the market is unstable.” 

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,437.75 MCPOC puts in play the $4,463.75 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,481.75 high volume area (HVNode) and $4,510.00 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,437.75 MCPOC puts in play the $4,425.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $4,393.75 HVNode and $4,349.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated real-time key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Please note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Short Covering: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” short and had poor location.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire worthless) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Price Discovery (One-Timeframe Or Trend): Elongation and range expansion denotes a market seeking new prices to establish value, or acceptance (i.e., more than 30-minutes of trade at a particular price level). 

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Rates: Low rates have to potential to increase the present value of future earnings making stocks, especially those that are high growth, more attractive. To note, inflation and rates move inversely to each other. Low rates stimulate demand for loans (i.e., borrowing money is more attractive). In conjunction with the rapid recovery, lower rates may solicit hawkish commentary as policymakers look to inhibit inflation.

News And Analysis

Upgrades outpace downgrades for second consecutive quarter.

‘Prick this bubble’: Morgan Stanley’s CEO calling for rate hikes.

Bitcoin futures frenzy erupts as day traders pile into ETF plays.

Global energy squeeze triggers unusual decline at U.S. oil hub.

China broke its Evergrande silence and said risks are in check.

JPMorgan Chase suggests more M&A could be on the horizon.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 14, 2021

Update: This morning’s 7:55 AM ET release of the newsletter failed to include updated S&P 500 levels in the very first graphic, below. That graphic has been updated, now. Sorry!

Market Commentary

Equity index, commodity, bond futures trade sideways to higher. Volatility ebbs.

  • Consumer prices rose. Taper in play.
  • Ahead: Claims, PPI data, Fed speak.

What Happened: After news that consumer prices rose more than expected, alongside the release of Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) minutes which revealed an intent to taper asset purchases, U.S. stock index futures auctioned higher.

Ahead is data on jobless claims and the producer price index (8:30 AM ET). After is Fed-speak by Lorie Logan (12:00 PM ET), Tom Barkin (1:00 PM ET), and Patrick Harker (6:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on positive intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred; after numerous sessions of a minimum separation in value (i.e., the area where 70% of the day’s volume occurred) failed to support downside price discovery, participants took back Monday’s spike and weak close

The activity now puts in play the minimal excess high just short of the $4,408.75 low volume area (LVNode), as well as the $4,415.00 untested point of control (VPOC), two areas where initiative buyers were unable to counter the fading momentum from short covering.

Looking across the spectrum, the Nasdaq 100 and Russell 2000 are firming, relative to the S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average, two indices that held the relative strength mantle, prior. 

This rotation, if we will, may support sideways-to-higher trade in the coming sessions as participants clash head-on with the 50.00% and 61.80% Fibonacci retracements, levels that overlap key anchored volume-weighted average price (AVWAP) levels.

Note: VWAP is a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs. We look to buy above a flat/rising VWAP pinch. Sell below a flat/declining VWAP pinch.
Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE: SPY) top left, Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1 (NASDAQ: QQQ) top right, iShares Russell 2000 ETF (NYSE: IWM) bottom left, SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF Trust (NYSE: DIA) bottom right. Spending more than a few hours of trade above trend, VWAP (yellow), and the 61.80% Fibonacci retracement suggest good odds of upside continuation.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of weakness into a seasonally bullish cycle of rebalancing and earnings

Some risks include the prospects of tapering off asset purchases, next month, alongside dangerous inflation pressures, as indicated by minutes from the FOMC meeting last month.

“Markets took the hint. Two-year yields are their highest since March last year, when the pandemic first hit,” said Bloomberg’s John Authers. “Meanwhile, the 10-year yield retreated from an approach toward its post-pandemic high. The two-year reflects the now-strong likelihood that the Fed will raise rates within the next two years; the 10-year reflects concerns about growth.” 

In terms of positioning, conditions may be supportive. 

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,381.25 LVNode puts in play the $4,393.75 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as high as the $4,415.00 VPOC and $4,437.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,381.25 LVNode puts in play the $4,360.25 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the $4,360.25 LVNode could reach as low as the $4,349.00 VPOC and $4,330.25 LVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated real-time key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Please note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

News And Analysis

Consumer prices rise more than expected as energy costs surge.

Global minimum tax pact ups the chance of multinational tax hike.

Global gas crisis is spilling over into the oil markets, IEA explains.

China’s power cuts stressing economic growth and supply chains.

Federal Reserve officials seeing mid-November, December taper.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 13, 2021

Editor’s Note: Tuesday’s newsletter tested a new feature to view real-time charts with key levels. From here on out, links to an updated layouts page will be found in the What To Expect section, below. Thanks!

Market Commentary

Equity index futures trade sideways to higher with bonds. Commodities were mixed.

  • Initiative sellers fail to expand the range.
  • Ahead is CPI, FOMC minutes, earnings.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to higher ahead of data that would shed light on inflation and earnings.

Ahead is data on the Consumer Price Index (8:30 AM ET), FOMC minutes (2:00 PM ET), as well as Fed-speak (4:30 and 8:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on positive intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by another spike or knee-jerk, end-of-day move, after initiative buyers lacked the conviction to push for excess.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Overnight exploration failed to provide validation of the spike; indices recovered the area where two-sided trade was most prevalent in Tuesday’s regular session.

Combining the activity over the past couple of sessions, we see an inability – on the part of sellers – to expand the range and value (i.e., the area where 70% of the day’s volume occurred). Trading above $4,360.00 in the S&P 500 invalidates Monday’s spike, likely forcing those short-term participants who sold the break to cover.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a seasonal cycle of rebalancing and earnings, improvement among some positioning metrics, among other things. 

Though these themes support (1) October volatility and (3) an increased potential for sideways to higher trade, some risks exist.

Nordea summarizes it well: “The combination of higher inflation risks and weaker activity data makes the near-term market outlook uncertain. We see more hawkish central banks, higher bond yields, and a stronger USD ahead.”

At the same time, according to a summary put out by The Market Ear, TS Lombard sees (1) China’s economic slowdown spilling over, (2) consumer confidence weakening amidst a bump in inflation expectations, (3) persistent inflationary pressures hastening the global monetary tightening, and (4) COVID-19 mutations leading to renewed lockdowns.

Graphic: Performance of the broad high-yield real estate sector in China, via Bloomberg.
Graphic: TS Lombard visualizes its estimates for slower growth, via The Market Ear.

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,346.75 high volume area (HVNode) pivot puts in play the $4,369.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $4,381.25 low volume area (LVNode) and $4,415.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,346.75 HVNode pivot puts in play the $4,330.25 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $4,299.00 VPOC and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated real-time key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Please note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

News And Analysis

Half of all delinquent homeowners have missed six payments.

China credit growth slows amid property, Evergrande troubles.

JPMorgan smashing estimates on M&A, wealth management.

Low vaccination rates exacerbate America’s caregiving crisis.

Apple finally fell victim to the never-ending supply chain crisis.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 12, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures recover after Monday’s liquidation and brief overnight follow-through. Commodities were mixed and bonds were sideways to higher.

  • Market positioning for an EOY rally?
  • Ahead: Job openings, inflation data.
  • New feature to view real-time levels.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures recover from earlier bearishness, absent impactful fundamental narratives.

Ahead is data on the job openings (10:00 AM ET) and the median expected 3-year inflation rate (11:00 AM ET). 

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 may open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

This comes after a volatile Monday.

At the outset, initiative sellers painted themselves into a corner at the convergence of the $4,363.25 high volume area (HVNode) pivot and an anchored volume-weighted average price.

Note: Liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs, a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among others, for quality of trade.

After participants failed to muster the wherewithal to take prices lower, the S&P 500 then endured a rapid short-covering rally intraday – as evidenced by emotional, multiple distribution profile structures – before the momentum from covering shorts faded.

Thereafter, the S&P 500 liquidated, leaving behind a minimal excess high just south of the $4,408.75 low volume area (LVNode) and $4,415.00 untested point of control (VPOC).

Despite the spike and weak close, there was a minimal separation in value (i.e., the area where 70% of the day’s volume occurred); in other words, though participants valued lower prices, the knee-jerk, end-of-day move was not validated by increased trade at lower price levels.

Overnight exploration provided that validation before a massive change in tone after about 2:00 AM ET. Thereafter, indices recovered the prior day’s close.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a seasonal cycle of rebalancing and earnings, improvement among some positioning metrics, among other things. 

These themes support (1) October volatility and (2) an increased potential for sideways to higher trade.

In support is JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) Marko Kolanovic, a big stock market bull; “We believe that this was the last significant wave, and an effective end to the pandemic,” he said.

Kolanovic prefers economically sensitive shares over technology and growth stocks. 

In opposition is Morgan Stanley’s (NYSE: MS) Mike Wilson who is on the side of pressured earnings, as a result of higher labor and material costs.

“Higher rates and a stronger USD have led to multiple compression, a process that remains unfinished, in our view,” he said in a note featured by The Market Ear. “Whether the final chapter of the mid-cycle transition ends with a 10% or 20% correction in the S&P 500 will be determined by how much earnings growth decelerates or has to outright decline (i.e., the Ice). We are gaining confidence in a sharper deceleration but the timing is more uncertain.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,346.75 HVNode invalidates Monday’s spike lower and puts in play the $4,363.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the $4,363.25 HVNode could reach as high as the $4,381.25 LVNode and $4,415.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,346.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,330.25 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $4,299.00 VPOC and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s real-time key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Please note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

News And Analysis

JPMorgan’s Kolanovic says stocks can handle $130 oil.

Chinese developers are faced with cuts to credit ratings.

Federal Reserve will wimp out on hikes despite inflation.

Evergrande skips 3rd round of bond coupon payments.

More clarity on inflation doesn’t mean the news is good.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 11, 2021

Editor’s Note: The newsletter schedule has changed.

From now on, you can expect to see Daily Briefs only – Monday through Friday – posted shortly before 8:00 AM ET. The Weekly Trade Idea will be packaged into Monday’s commentary, also.

Thanks again for your continued support. I strive to simplify and add value, as best I can.

Market Commentary

Equity index futures trade sideways to lower with bonds. Commodities were mixed.

  • October bottom; a rip up into EOY?
  • Ahead: No economic reports today.

What Happened: Ahead of a busy start to the third-quarter earnings season, this week, U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to lower overnight alongside some mixed narratives.

Last night, it was revealed that Goldman Sachs Group (NYSE: GS) cut its U.S. growth forecast on consumption and a fiscal slowdown. Not even a day later, there is news that Goldman, alongside JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) strategists, suggests the recent dip is a buy.

Given the Columbus Day holiday, today, no economic reports are scheduled.

Graphic updated 6:20 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-Off if expected /ES open is below the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:20 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

Further, during the prior week’s trade, on mostly strong intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, equity index futures established a rounded bottom and minimal excess low.

Then, a swift recovery ensued; initiative sellers lacked the wherewithal to take prices lower, beyond the S&P 500’s $4,363.25-$4,278.00 balance area. Initiative buyers were then emboldened, expanding range and value the opposite way.

During this recovery process, the S&P 500 – as evidenced by p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structures – established a minimal excess high before momentum from covering shorts was overpowered by responsive selling at key areas of resting liquidity, at and around /ES $4,410.25 (SPY $441.00), the site of a key anchored volume-weighted average price (VWAP) level.

Note: Liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Friday’s session succumbed to divergences in buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer, resolving some of the aforementioned emotional structures through what’s called the “cave-fill” process. 

During this process, participants revisited, repaired, and strengthened – building out areas of high volume (HVNodes), or value – areas low volume (LVNodes).

Note: The cave-fill process widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Moreover, September’s seasonally-aligned weakness saw the Nasdaq 100 lead lower. Last week – alongside improvement amongst some positioning metrics – the tone shifted with the cash-settled Nasdaq 100 (INDEX: NDX) rising 4.35% versus the S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) rising 3.25%.

That comes as October traditionally marks an end to weakness amidst a cycle of rebalancing and earnings; according to LPL Financial Research, “Stocks rise 3.8% on average during the fourth quarter, but the past seven times the S&P 500 was up 15% year-to-date heading into the home stretch of the year, the fourth quarter was higher every single time, up a very impressive 5.8%.” 

“Earnings for the third quarter should again be strong and mostly outpace expectations,” Leuthold Group chief investment strategist Jim Paulsen adds. “Hours worked in the third quarter rose by about 5% suggesting real GDP for the quarter may be close to 7%. With most companies reporting strong pricing power, solid real GDP growth should result in another surprisingly strong corporate earnings season.”

Graphic: LPL Financial Research unpacks S&P 500 seasonality.
Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE: SPY) top left, Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1 (NASDAQ: QQQ) top right, iShares Russell 2000 ETF (NYSE: IWM) bottom left, SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF Trust (NYSE: DIA) bottom right. Spending more than a few hours of trade above trend, VWAP (yellow), and the 61.80% Fibonacci retracement suggest good odds of upside continuation.

Notwithstanding, some risks to be aware of include the Federal Reserve’s tapering initiatives and the prospects of a rise in the Fed funds rate, amidst hot sentiment, a decline in top-of-book depth, as well as back and forth entry (exit) into (from) short-gamma.

“What we see in the equity space is a lot of sensitivity to higher real yields,” Joseph Little, chief global strategist at HSBC Holdings Plc (NYSE: HSBC) Asset Management, said. “We are seeing policy normalization everywhere. That creates a little bit of a challenge for [the] equity market because it does change the drivers of equity performance.”

Graphic: A “gentle reminder of the fact tapering matters,” via The Market Ear.
Graphic: Sentiment elevated, “generating a 96% historical probability of down markets in the next 12 months at current levels.”

In addition, to balance some of our Q4 bullishness, in a quote highlighted by The Market Ear, Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC) explained: September 30 “was the 24th time since 1928 that the S&P experienced two or more 3-sigma shocks in 10 trading days, … [and] only in 3 of 23 episodes (and 1 in the last 50yrs) did the S&P surpass the prior month’s peak in the month following the second shock.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,363.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,393.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the $4,393.00 VPOC could reach as high as the $4,415.00 VPOC and $4,437.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,363.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,346.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,332.25 low volume area (LVNode) and $4,299.00 VPOC, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:20 AM ET.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

News And Analysis

Banks bought epic amounts of safe assets; forget inflation.

The Fed is likely to side with growth and keep policy easy.

Merck seeks emergency use authorization for COVID pills.

Europe Economic Snapshot: Faster-than-expected restart.

Latin America settles into new post-pandemic slow growth.

S&P talking stock-flow confusion again – QE and tapering.

What People Are Saying

Weekly Trade Idea

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 8, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures sideways overnight. Volatility ebbs.

  • Senate passed debt-ceiling raise.
  • Ahead: NFP, unemployment data.
  • Clarity regarding tapering by Fed.
  • Responsive selling into RTH high.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways overnight alongside news that the Senate passed a short-term debt ceiling increase. 

Ahead is data on nonfarm payrolls, the unemployment rate, and average hourly earnings (8:30 AM ET), as well as wholesale inventories (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:40 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 may open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

During the prior day’s regular trade, on strong intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by the expansion of range and value above the $4,410.25 low volume area (LVNode), between two key anchored-volume weighted average price (AVWAP) levels.

Into the price rise, however, we note that participants sold responsively (i.e., sold in response to prices printing above an area of recent acceptance or balance); as prices came into the resting liquidity (Graphic 2) – also the location of a key AVWAP in – at and around /ES $4,410.25 (SPY $441.00), buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer diverged, markedly.

In other words, at the AVWAP – a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade – there were liquidity algorithms programmed to sell.

Why? Liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.
Graphic 1: SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, encounters responsive selling at key volume-weighted average price levels. 
Graphic 2: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

This trade is significant because it suggests a willingness to slow price discovery and balance (i.e., trade sideways as participants look to establish an equilibrium in light of new information). 

We’re carrying forward the presence of a p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structure (i.e., old-money shorts covering) left behind prior initiative trade, as well as continued trade below the 20- and 50-day simple moving averages; these dynamics induce anxiety and stress for the technical-driven, weaker-handed buy-the-dip crowd.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening as investors await key employment data that will provide context on what the Federal Reserve with respect to monetary policy.

According to Bloomberg, Friday’s payroll data – which is likely to indicate strong improvement – likely emboldens tapering initiatives and improves the prospects of a rise in the Fed funds rate.

“What we see in the equity space is a lot of sensitivity to higher real yields,” Joseph Little, chief global strategist at HSBC Asset Management, said. “We are seeing policy normalization everywhere. That creates a little bit of a challenge for equity market because it does change the drivers of equity performance.”

Graphic 3: A “gentle reminder of the fact tapering matters,” via The Market Ear.

Adding, earlier this week, we noted that indices were best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery metrics likely reached a limit. These dynamics remain.

Graphic: ​​On October 5, 2021, according to SqueezeMetrics, “Net Put Delta (NPD) and the customer Vanna-Gamma Ratio (VGR) [] settled in a *bullish* place. Risk to the upside.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,381.25 low volume area (LVNode) puts in play the $4,415.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $4,437.75 micro-composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,481.75 high volume area (HVNode), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,381.25 LVNode puts in play the $4,363.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,332.25 LVNode and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Short Covering: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” short and had poor location.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

News And Analysis

Short-term increase in U.S. debt ceiling passes Senate.

U.S. special operations rotating into Taiwan for training.

Moody’s: Kicking [debt limits] not too far down the road.

Energy Transition: Demand destruction stalking Europe.

APAC CBDCs – pathways plenty, destination uncertain.

Vaccinations and policy decisions are key to EM growth.

Richest Americans flee Treasuries with holdings at lows.

Crypto Mystery: Where’s the $69B behind Tether’s coin.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 7, 2021

Market Commentary

Led by the Nasdaq 100, equity index futures were higher. Commodities and bonds were mixed.

  • Relief of worries over debt, energy.
  • Claims and credit data, Fed speak.
  • Positioning suggests risk to upside.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures continued higher overnight alongside ease in angst over debt and energy worries.

Ahead is data on jobless claims (8:30 AM ET), Fed speak by John Williams (8:40 AM ET), Fed speak by Loretta Mester (11:45 AM ET), as well as consumer credit data (3:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:20 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:20 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a heightened potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on negative intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by trade above the level of a key volume-weighted average price (VWAP).

Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, encounters responsive buying at key volume-weighted average price levels. 
Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Thereafter, equity index futures, led by the Nasdaq 100, continued higher overnight, leaving behind a multi-session balance area (between the $4,363.25 and $4,278.00 HVNodes).

This trade is significant because it marks a rejection, or a willingness to not transact at lower prices. We’re carrying forward, though, the presence of poor structures (e.g., Wednesday’s advance away from session value on a taper of volume, and minimal excess lows which suggest a lack of commitment to take prices lower).

Gap + Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) has occurred.

At the same time, gaps ought to fill quickly. Should any gap not fill, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. 

Therefore, the objective is to monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October, as well as narratives surrounding adjustments to monetary policy, debt ceiling complications, and energy crises.

These themes support fear and uncertainty; for instance, Nordea believes there are “4 macro reasons why 2022 should be noisier than 2021: liquidity, growth slowdown, cost/margin problems and the risk of the Fed put looking very different if inflation indicators stay elevated.”

However, the Senate is nearing a deal to raise the debt ceiling, relieving the threat of imminent default; this was a likely development given that “lawmakers [knew] that voting against raising the debt ceiling would have enormous economic costs,” Moody’s noted.

Also, on the energy crisis front, Russia offered to export record volumes of fuel to Europe as winter approaches fast.

Given these developments, Tracie McMillion, head of global asset allocation strategy at Wells Fargo & Co’s (NYSE: WFC) Investment Institute said the following on Bloomberg: “We have several things that we are watching right now – certainly the debt ceiling is one of them and that’s been contributing to the recent volatility, … but we look for these 5% corrections to add money to the equity markets.”

Adding, prior to yesterday’s advance, this newsletter noted that indices were best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery metrics likely reached a limit

Graphic: ​​On October 5, 2021, according to SqueezeMetrics, “Net Put Delta (NPD) and the customer Vanna-Gamma Ratio (VGR) [] settled in a *bullish* place. Risk to the upside.”

After consolidating for numerous sessions, participants resolved the developing balance area (between the $4,363.25 and $4,278.00 HVNodes) on new information that warranted a directional move. 

In other words, the overnight session confirmed the bull thesis

We note, amidst a decline in top-of-book depth, as well as back and forth entry (exit) into (from) short-gamma, we limit our expectations based on some of the recent realized volatility.

In a quote highlighted by The Market Ear, Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC) explained: “last Thursday was the 24th time since 1928 that the S&P experienced two or more 3-sigma shocks in 10 trading days, … [and] only in 3 of 23 episodes (and 1 in the last 50yrs) did the S&P surpass the prior month’s peak in the month following the second shock.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,377.00 overnight point of control (O/N POC) puts in play the $4,410.25 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,437.75 micro-composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,481.75 high volume area (HVNode), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,377.00 O/N POC puts in play the $4,363.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,332.25 LVNode and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 7:10 AM ET.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

News And Analysis

NFT game wants you to spend real money buying fake shares.

Senate is poised to pull nation back from default brink, for now.

Global banks retain competitive advantage amid big obstacles.

Russia offers to ease Europe’s gas crisis with strings attached.

Digitalization of markets: how digital bonds can disrupt market.

U.S. utilities and regulators gear up for electric vehicle outlook.

ECB studies a new bond-buying plan for when crisis tool ends.

S&P on navigating a pathway to a low-carbon global economy. 

Rivian’s electric truck gets all attention but fate tied to Amazon.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 6, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures, commodities, and bonds trade sideways to lower.

  • Fed action, debt ceiling fear mounting.
  • Ahead: ADP Employment, Fed speak.
  • Indices position for directional resolve.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to lower overnight alongside narratives surrounding adjustments to monetary policy and debt ceiling complications.

Ahead is data on ADP employment (8:15 AM ET) and Fed speak (9:00 and 11:30 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-Off if expected /ES open is below the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting an increased potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on positive albeit weak intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by trade up to $4,358.00, the level of a key anchored volume-weighted average price (VWAP).

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Thereafter, equity index futures, led by the Nasdaq 100 and Russell 2000, liquidated overnight, leaving behind Tuesday’s prominent point of control (POC) before finding responsive buyers at a key high volume area (HVNode) for this most recent developing balance area (between the $4,363.25 and $4,278.00 HVNodes).

This trade is significant because it marks acceptance, or a willingness to transact at lower prices. We’re carrying forward, though, the presence of poor structures (e.g., Friday’s advance away from session value on a taper of volume, and a minimal excess low, suggests a lack of commitment to take prices lower).

Given the overnight gap inside of balance, the following scenarios apply.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) may occur.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October, as well as narratives surrounding adjustments to monetary policy and debt ceiling complications.

Despite these themes supporting fear and uncertainty, Marko Kolanovic, JPMorgan’s chief global markets strategist, said the following in a note Monday: “We do not believe the recent bout of de-risking will lead to sustained falls, and maintain the stance to keep buying into any weakness.”

On the other hand, in support of continued volatility, Nordea believes there are “4 macro reasons why 2022 should be noisier than 2021: liquidity, growth slowdown, cost/margin problems and the risk of the Fed put looking very different if inflation indicators stay elevated.”

Graphic: According to Nordea, “The Fed is also quickly moving closer to a tapering decision, which now sounds almost as a done deal for November. The previous three episodes of QE tapering have all gone hand in hand with rising volatility. Our scenario with Fed rate hikes in the second half of 2022 would add to those volatility risks.”

Prior to yesterday’s advance, this newsletter noted that indices were best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery metrics likely reached a limit

Graphic: ​​On October 5, 2021, according to SqueezeMetrics, “Net Put Delta (NPD) and the customer Vanna-Gamma Ratio (VGR) [] settled in a *bullish* place. Risk to the upside.”

The overnight liquidation challenges that thesis, putting indexes in a peculiar position; it’s likely that participants are seeking more information to base a directional move.

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,278.00 HVNode puts in play the $4,332.25 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as $4,349.00 untested POC (VPOC) and $4,410.25 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,278.00 HVNode puts in play the $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL). Initiative trade beyond the ONL could reach as low as $4,233.00 VPOC and $4,202.25 LVNode, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Rates: Low rates have to potential to increase the present value of future earnings making stocks, especially those that are high growth, more attractive. To note, inflation and rates move inversely to each other. Low rates stimulate demand for loans (i.e., borrowing money is more attractive). In conjunction with the rapid recovery, lower rates solicit hawkish commentary as policymakers look to inhibit inflation.

News And Analysis

‘Volmageddon’ history as SEC greenlights leveraged VIX ETFs.

World trade rebounds at a faster clip than was initially expected.

Treasuries’ pain deepened amid the grimmest year since 2013.

European gas surges 60% in two days as EU sounds the alarm.

Unrelenting political brinkmanship edging U.S. closer to default.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 5, 2021

Editor’s Note: Sorry for the delay, everyone. I’m back in action, today, after traveling!

Market Commentary

Equity index futures trade higher with yields and the dollar. Commodities were mixed.

  • Positioning: Some risks weigh to the upside.
  • Ahead is data on the trade deficit, PMI, ISM.
  • Fundamental narratives are reducing clarity.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures sideways to higher overnight alongside narratives surrounding a taper to Federal Reserve asset purchases and debt ceiling complications.

Ahead is data on the trade deficit (8:30 AM ET), Markit services PMI (9:45 AM ET), and ISM services index (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 7:50 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 7:50 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on weak intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by a liquidation into the bulk of last Friday’s value, the area where about 70% of the volume took place. 

In the process, participants left a letter b-shaped profile which suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location; Friday’s advance away from the value area, on a taper of volume, left poor structure – lacking commitment – that gave during Monday’s move lower alongside fundamental drivers, putting in play the S&P 500’s October 1 $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL).

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October, as well as narratives surrounding a taper to Federal Reserve asset purchases and debt ceiling complications.

These themes are supportive of fear and uncertainty.

To elaborate, on one hand, according to Bloomberg, “the bond market thinks the Fed is going to make a hawkish mistake, and stamp out the life in the economy when previously there had been a belief that the Fed would be easy and let inflation move higher.”

On the other hand, in reference to default on a failure to raise or suspend the debt limit, “The consensus (from clients to whom we speak) is that it just will not happen,” Barclays Plc (NYCE: BCS) analysts explained. “But political schisms in Congress are stronger than they have been in a long time and battle lines more hardened.”

In addition, according to The Market Ear, Morgan Stanley’s (NYSE: MS) Mike Wilson sees the inability of companies to pass on pricing, margin risk related to higher wages, and a reversion to trend in goods consumption, coupled with near term risks on supply chain issues, weighing earnings into early next year.

“In short, higher real rates should mean lower equity prices. Secondarily, they may also mean value over growth even as the overall equity market goes lower. This makes for a doubly difficult investment environment given how most investors are positioned,” Wilson said in a discussion that also touched on a fraying in the buy-the-dip psychology

In opposition, JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) sales believe liquidity will remain ample while a capital return and consumer balance sheet health make the recent dip a buy.

Graphic: Morgan Stanley unpacks fraying of buy-the-dip psychology, visually, via The Market Ear.

In terms of positioning, there is more risk to the upside than the downside; indices are best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery has likely reached a limit.

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,285.75 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,332.25 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,363.25 HVNode and $4,410.25 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,285.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL). Initiative trade beyond the ONL could reach as low as the $4,233.00 VPOC and $4,202.25 gap zone, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 7:50 AM ET.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

News And Analysis

Stagflation fear is having a British renaissance.

Global energy crisis is first of many in transition.

Buy the dip has failed. Here’s what you do next.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 4, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures were sideways to lower with bonds and the dollar.

  • Nordea: Macro backdrop worsens.
  • Ahead is a relatively light calendar.
  • October is volatile while Q4 bullish.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to lower overnight alongside reports that China was showing little interest in a direct bailout of Evergrande and U.S. political leaders remain at odds on the debt limit.

Ahead is data on factory orders and core capital goods orders (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on a strengthening of intraday breadth, among other metrics including positioning measures, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by a recovery of Thursday’s $4,365.00 untested point of control (VPOC). 

Given the overnight response at the top of Friday’s value area – the bulk of where trade was conducted – it looks as though participants are interested in slowing the pace of downside discovery. 

Still, the S&P 500 is well below its 20- and 50-day simple moving averages and multiple distribution profile structures denote emotion, as well as a lack of commitment

Graphic: S&P 500 daily chart with 20-, 50-, and 200-day simple moving average.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October and a fraying in the buy-the-dip psychology.

According to Nordea, despite a calm, upward-sloping term structure, there has been “a slightly upward tilting trend” in futures tracking the S&P 500 volatility index, likely warranted by several macro reasons including a worsening in liquidity, a slowdown in growth, cost/margin problems, and risks to the Fed put.

Graphic: Fed’s GDPNow estimate lowers expectations for U.S. economic growth, via The Market Ear

LPL Research adds that aside from October, no other month has seen more 1% moves, and the fourth quarter is “historically the best for stocks, with the third quarter the worst.”

Graphic: LPL Research unpacks S&P 500 seasonality. 

Moreover, for today, given expectations of heightened volatility, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,332.25 low volume area (LVNode) puts in play the $4,363.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as high as the $4,410.25 LVNode and $4,437.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,332.25 LVNode puts in play the $4,299.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL) and $4,233.00 VPOC, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Responsive Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) in response to prices below (above) an area of recent price acceptance.

Price Discovery (One-Timeframe Or Trend): Elongation and range expansion denotes a market seeking new prices to establish value, or acceptance (i.e., more than 30-minutes of trade at a particular price level).

News And Analysis

EM bond markets continue to grow, as do vulnerabilities.

There’s is no inflation without income; there’s no income.

Action on Evergrande to avoid financial, social instability.

Global growth steady as delta spurs big regional swings.

Doomsday clock for U.S. debt ticks on political clashings.

Global Credit Conditions Q4: supply strain, inflation pain.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.