Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For December 14, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were mixed after Monday’s failed balance-area breakout in the S&P 500 had that index rotate to and through the opposite end of a multi-day consolidation.

This is as market participants await clarity on monetary policy from the Federal Reserve and the weighty “quad-witching” derivatives expiry, late this week. 

Ahead is data on the producer price index (8:30 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-Off if expected /ES open is below the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

A change in the market was occurring, yesterday, as participants sought to break the S&P 500 out of a multi-day balance area and discover higher prices.

Shortly after the U.S. cash open, however, there was no follow-through; the index liquidated to the opposite end of the balance with sellers turning aggressive into the close.

Selling carried-forward, overnight, as the S&P 500 made it through the low-end of balance before finding responsive buyers at an anchored volume-weighted average price (VWAP) level, at which liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell.

As noted many sessions ago, prior discovery left gaps and p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structures (i.e., old-money covering shorts).

Participants are now revisiting, repairing, and strengthening – building out areas of high volume (HVNodes) via the cave-fill process – these areas of low volume (LVNodes).

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed selling into end-of-day as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. Though initial readings were supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit), selling turned aggressive with the S&P 500 breaking its multi-day consolidation low, overnight.

Context: The S&P 500 can’t seem to crack the pin beneath $4,700.00.

This pin is the result of customers committing capital to bets on low volatility into this week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting and Friday’s large derivatives expiry.

Graphic: Customers increased their exposure to short-delta call exposure. “Last week was about selling index calls,” SpotGamma’s Brent Kochuba said on Twitter. “This is likely why the $SPX stopped at $4,700.00.”

According to SpotGamma, participants are increasing their short-delta exposure (via a lot of call selling and a bit of put buying). 

In hedging their rising (declining) long-delta exposure, the dealer or counterparty to this positioning will sell (buy) futures into strength (weakness)

This forces the market into a consolidation

This trend ought to continue until (A) there’s a collapse in event-related implied volatility which would bring in positive flows as dealers cover static hedges, (B) the poor breadth and single-stock weakness feeds into feverishly destabilizing demand for downside protection, or (C) participants commit more capital to calls further out in time and higher in price.

We talk about the implications of options positioning mainly because it is a growing market that provides a clear indication of how participants (no matter how large) are positioned. 

Also, with FOMC approaching, the “other” timeframe participant (e.g., the hedge funds and institutions behind impactful buy/sell programs) is likely awaiting policy clarity to reposition.

As Mind Over Markets author James Dalton best explained: “Market participants balance their positions in expectation of the market’s reaction to the external stimuli – there is simply no activity. Trade is not being facilitated in any direction, for there is little participation and no confidence.”

Notwithstanding, last night, we broke a multi-session balance area. Based on profile theory, a new trend may begin. Context, though, suggests otherwise. 

Participants (large in size) are seeking clarity and, given the market’s responsiveness to technical levels, weaker, less well-capitalized short-term participants are in control

Therefore, we ought to discount (give less weight to) what happens in the coming days.

If later this week, participants are assuaged of their fears surrounding monetary policy, a collapse in event-related implied volatility ought to bring in positive flows as the long delta (from dealers’ exposure to short puts) decreases.

The decrease in dealer supply (short delta), via covering of short stock/futures hedges, would bolster any attempt higher

According to SpotGamma, if “interest in call options was to grow (evidenced by a shift higher in the Call Wall), a rally into (and beyond) end-of-year is further affirmed.”

That’s not to say that some of the vulnerabilities like participants’ large exposure to leveraged products (which increases the speed with which volatility is realized) couldn’t prompt a round of destabilizing demand for downside protection.

So, the question is whether the few companies leading this year’s rally can continue to lead? 

Or, in light of recent exuberance in heavy-weights like Apple Inc (NASDAQ: AAPL), in which participants are underexposed to downside protection, post-FOMC demand for protection bids volatility and results in a destabilizing, reflexive reaction on the part of dealers.

Graphic: As U.S. stocks’ inflation-adjusted earnings yield turns negative, as seen near the peak of the tech bubble, via Bloomberg, “Investors in the Nasdaq increasingly seem to think that only a few companies have much of a chance. With a growing possibility of more aggressive attempts to prosecute antitrust issues, that’s a riskier position than it appears.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the lower part of a balanced overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break + Gap Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) is occurring.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. 

Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator. 

Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,647.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,657.00 balance area low (BAL). Initiative trade beyond the BAL could reach as high as the $4,674.25 HVNode and $4,690.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,647.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,618.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the latter could reach as low as the $4,581.00 and $4,523.00 untested point of control (VPOC), or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Cave-Fill Process: Widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Liquidation Breaks: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Initiative Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) within or above (below) the previous day’s value area.

Responsive Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) in response to prices below (above) an area of recent price acceptance.

Price Discovery (One-Timeframe Or Trend): Elongation and range expansion denotes a market seeking new prices to establish value, or acceptance (i.e., more than 30-minutes of trade at a particular price level). 

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, helping develop insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not carry the right to provide advice. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For December 13, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, most equity, commodity, and bond futures were higher.

This comes ahead of the weighty December 17 options and futures expiration – “quad witching” – large portfolio rebalances, and an update to Federal Reserve (Fed) policy, December 15.

Ahead, today, there are no key economic releases scheduled.

Graphic updated 6:15 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On lackluster breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by an expansion of range, Friday, followed by a gap out of balance, Sunday.

Graphic: SpotGamma’s (beta) Hedging Impact of Real-Time Options (HIRO) indicator suggested participants were buying (or covering short) calls and selling put options, into the close. S&P 500 prices followed as dealers added to their long-delta hedges.

Context: As fears of a COVID-19 resurgence are assuaged, in the face of U.S. job growth that fell short of expectations, per Bloomberg, the Fed ought to move more quickly to “save itself from having to hike too far and make rates so expensive that they slow down the economy.”

The expectation is that the Fed scales asset purchases by $30 billion per month versus the expected $15 billion. In doubling the pace of the taper to bond-buying, the odds of a rate hike happening as early as next June increase markedly. 

“If the Fed does not address inflation soon, they risk long rates shooting much higher,” says Jim Bianco of Bianco Research.

“But if they follow the market’s lead in aggressively hiking rates, they risk hurting the economy. We understand the Fed’s paralysis given the massive uncertainty coming out of the pandemic. However, the longer they wait to address inflation, the worse this conundrum will become.”

Rising rates, among other factors, have the potential to decrease the present value of future earnings, thereby making stocks, especially those that are high growth, less attractive.

Despite today’s rates supporting validations better than in the ‘90s, an intent to reduce stimulus serves as a headwind.

That said, equity markets typically rally into the first hike; Moody’s Corporation’s (NYSE: MCO) “forecast is that the Dow Jones Industrial Average increases this quarter and peaks in early 2022, … [followed by] steady decline through 2022.”

Graphic: S&P 500 performance before and after rate hikes, via The Market Ear.

Prevailing monetary frameworks and max liquidity promoted a large divergence in price from fundamentals; the growth of passive investing – the effect of increased moneyness among nonmonetary assets – and derivatives trading imply a lot of left-tail risks.

Graphic: As U.S. stocks’ inflation-adjusted earnings yield turns negative, as seen near the peak of the tech bubble, via Bloomberg, “Investors in the Nasdaq increasingly seem to think that only a few companies have much of a chance. With a growing possibility of more aggressive attempts to prosecute antitrust issues, that’s a riskier position than it appears.”

Adding, the Fed, too, is seeing vulnerabilities in asset prices.

“The decline in stock prices is forecast to be orderly but it could turn into something worse,” Moody’s explains. 

“One potential catalyst would be an explosion in the value of margin accounts at brokers and dealers, which amounted to $595 billion in the second quarter, nearly double the pre-pandemic level. A drop in stock prices could trigger margin calls.”

Margin calls happen when customers owe money to their brokerage firm; “If there is no money, investors have to sell other assets.”

Putting it simply, participants are more exposed to leveraged products, among other things, which increases the speed with which volatility is realized.

So despite positioning metrics flashing a buy, and expectations of “the strongest quarterly nominal [economic] growth in more than three decades,” offsides positioning may prompt a cascading reaction that exacerbates underlying price movements.

Short-term, however, aside from the presence of “natural, passive buying support,” the market is in a positive-gamma environment wherein the counterparties to customer options trades add market liquidity and temper realized volatility.

Graphic: “[N]atural, passive buying support,” coupled with strong put flows results in positive return distribution. Data via SqueezeMetrics. Graph via Physik Invest.

If participants are further assuaged of their fears at this week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting, a collapse in event-related implied volatility ought to bring in positive flows as the long delta (from dealers’ exposure to short puts) decreases.

The decrease in dealer supply (short delta), via covering of short stock/futures hedges, would bolster any attempt higher.

Expectations: As of 6:15 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break + Gap Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) is occurring.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. 

Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator. 

Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,717.25 low volume area (LVNode) puts in play the $4,732.50 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as high as the $4,740.50 minimal excess and $4,767.00 extension, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,717.25 LVNode puts in play the $4,705.25 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $4,690.25 MCPOC and $4,674.25 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, helping develop insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not carry the right to provide advice. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For December 6, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways to higher after Friday’s liquidation had the S&P 500 undercutting its 50-day simple moving average (SMA), a visual go/no-go level.

Strength shifted, again, to the Russell 2000 while the tech-heavy Nasdaq 100 was underwater. This comes as policymakers look to temper inflation with the tightening of monetary policy.

In regards to news, China’s central bank looked to boost liquidity for its slowing economy. It was also found that a new virus variant was not fueling a surge in hospitalizations; the U.S.’s adviser on the issue, Anthony Fauci, said there wasn’t “a great degree of severity to omicron.”

That didn’t stop the economists at Goldman Sachs Group Inc (NYSE: GS) from cutting their forecasts for U.S. GDP next year; the estimates were revised down on an expectation the omicron strain would drag growth.

Ahead are no important releases on fundamental data.

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On weak intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the worst outcome occurred; there was an expansion of range, to the downside, and participants spent the majority of the session building value at lower prices (i.e., levels at which 70% of that day’s volume occurred).

The lower bound of Friday’s range was $4,500.00 or so, at which the 50-day SMA corresponded with a large base of resting liquidity. 

To note, the 50-day is visual level at which short-term, technically-driven participants were likely buying in response to probes below developing balance. 

Successfully auctioning beneath the 50-day is a concern. Those short-term participants lack the wherewithal (both emotional and financial) to defend retests.

Continuation lower, in such a case, is likely.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The Fed’s intent to moderate stimulus and uncertainty with regards to how a new COVID-19 variant will impact the global recovery.

According to Bloomberg, “the Fed is seen responding to the inflation fears stalking businesses by leaning toward an older playbook of prioritizing the fight against price pressures — even if that risks weaker growth over the longer term.”

In line with the aforementioned, traders already started pricing in potential rate overshoots with the “December 2024 eurodollar yields [rising] above December 2025 contracts, a curve inversion that signals expectations the central bank may consider cutting rates in 2025.”

The result is that the U.S. may realize the swiftest tightening in financial conditions since 2005 if the Fed was to hike rates three times next year.

Graphic: Via Bloomberg, trades price in a rapid increase in the real Fed rate.

This development carries weight; now, more than during the tech-and-telecom bubble, low rates support current valuations.

Graphic: Low rates support current valuations better than the ‘90s, according to Nasdaq.

The reason being? 

“Lower interest rates lead to future cashflow discounting less – leading to higher valuations. From another perspective, a company with a 5% profit margin is a much more attractive investment when long-term borrow costs are less than 2%, as they are now than when it costs 5%-7% to borrow money back in the ‘90s.”

The Fed’s intent to taper faster, and eventually hike rates, just as liquidity conditions have deteriorated, pushed “the orange dot [in the above graphic] toward the right during the year.”

Notwithstanding, “growth in earnings is so far stronger than the multiple compression caused by rising rates (blue line),” and that is helping support this year’s rally.

The intent to moderate stimulus is likely to serve as a headwind; there’s always a possibility of unanticipated policy adjustments, in the face of a resurgent COVID-19 digging further into the economy’s growth.

That’s partially why we saw Goldman Sachs cut their forecasts for GDP. 

Graphic: Via The Market Ear. Goldman Sachs cut its forecast for GDP.

But, for every negative view, there is a positive (either by the same institution or a competitor).

We see JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM), among others, doubling down on their bullishness.

“We are calling for another year of positive earnings surprises, relative to current consensus estimates.”

Similarly, the market may shrug off omicron just as it did beta and delta

Graphic: Via The Market Ear, the market shrugs off COVID-19 variants with ease.

And, despite the market’s trade in short-gamma (a “negative [gamma] implies the opposite [selling into lows, buying into highs], thus magnifying market volatility”) destabilizing demand for downside protection is concentrated in shorter-dated options

Graphic: A roll lower in the VIX term structure brings in supportive flows. Via The Market Ear.

Once that short-dated protection rolls off the table (and/or is monetized), counterparties will quickly reverse and support the market, buying to close their existing stock/futures hedges.

This flow is stabilizing and may play into a seasonally-aligned rally into Christmas as participants see defenses rolled out against the new COVID-19 variant, and the positive effects of pro-cyclical inflation, economic growth, and improvements in global trade.

Such development plays into a thesis held by Moody’s Corporation (NYSE: MCO). 

“The forecast is that the Dow Jones Industrial Average increases this quarter and peaks in early 2022. However, the rest of the contours of the forecast didn’t change. We expect the DJIA to steadily decline throughout 2022, but because it will now peak later than previously thought, the level of the DJIA will be higher at the end of next year and over the near-term forecast.”

Similarly, here are some views by Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS), compiled by The Market Ear. 

“The Morgan Stanley’s Global Risk Demand Index (GRDI) [fell] to a 10Y low reading of -4.2SD, last Friday (currently -3.SD). Historically, such a level has proved to be a solid buy signal over the next 3m. Other signs that investor sentiment has overshot to the downside include the VIX > 30, a steep put-call skew, and the AAII survey where 42% of respondents are bearish (90th percentile reading). Over the last decade, MSCI ACWI has risen 98% of the time over the next 3m post this signal and by an average of 10%.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) may occur.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the developing balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,523.00 untested point of control (VPOC) puts in play the $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode) and $4,590.00 balance area high (BAH), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,523.00 VPOC puts in play the $4,492.25 regular trade low (RTH Low). Initiative trade beyond the RTH Low could reach as low as the $4,471.00 and $4,425.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Liquidation Breaks: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 22, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were sideways alongside the narrative that a strengthening dollar and the need to counteract inflation may endanger the rally in risk assets.

Ahead is data on the Chicago Fed National Activity Index (8:30 AM ET) and Existing Home Sales (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:20 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

To start, on weak intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by the balance and overlap of value areas in the S&P 500.

Taken together, the activity of the past two weeks or so signals participants’ willingness to position for directional resolve (i.e., trend) in the face of new information, and the like. 

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of concerns over peak liquidity and prevailing monetary frameworks. 

Specifically, as Bloomberg’s John Authers put it, the abundance of global liquidity, that stoked one of the best stock market recoveries in history, is in peril by the strengthening of the dollar and the need to counter inflationary pressures. 

“Obstinately low real yields help to explain why the threat to liquidity has as yet had minimal effect on the stock market. Higher real yields are the shoe that hasn’t dropped this year; investors need a clear plan of evasive action for such an eventuality. For now, liquidity, liquidity, liquidity is still keeping stocks going up, up, up.”

Some of this fear around monetary evolution, so to speak, though, has yet to feed into the pricing of equity market risk. Fear in one market tends to feed into the fear of another.

Graphic: “The ICE BofA MOVE Index, which measures implied volatility for Treasuries, is close to the steepest level since April 2020,” via Bloomberg. This measure, on a relative basis, has diverged from the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), which is a measure of implied volatility for equities, specifically the S&P 500. 

At the same time, we see a divergence in breadth.

Graphic: % of SPX stocks above their 200-Day Moving Average versus SPX, via indexindicators.com.

The takeaway here is that the SPX is sideways to higher while many of its constituents seem to not be participating in the most recent round of markup.

What factors are to blame for this? Two include an all-time high in buybacks, as well as extremes in speculation and upside volatility in heavily-weighted index constituents.

Adding, the S&P 500 closing last week pinned to the level at which dealers (i.e., those participants that take the other side of options trades and warehouse risk) exposure to positive options gamma was highest. 

Note that I talk about the implications options so much due to increased use and impact on underlying price, as a result of associated hedging. 

The aforementioned explains why the S&P can’t move; “If dealer hedging has suppressed index level volatility, but underlying components are still exhibiting idiosyncratic volatility, then the only reconciliation is a decline in correlation,” according to one paper by Newfound Research.

So trash breadth and a deceleration in equity inflows, coupled with exuberance (and upside volatility in heavily weighted index constituents) and clustered options positioning over the past weeks, is part of the reason why indices are sideways. Yes, to some extent.

Graphic: Per The Market Ear, “BofA points out the halt to inflows in market leaders such as tech, energy and financials. Basically, the “pillar of the pillar” of this market is fading. Do we still trust the seasonality pattern?”

The tone is to change, soon.

After OPEX, the absence of supportive vanna and charm flows (defined below), for which we can attribute some of the trends in extended day outperformance, alongside that sticky gamma hedging, so to speak, frees the market for directional resolve

According to SpotGamma, in light of recent exuberance, “participants are underexposed to downside put protection. Should these participants reach for long-gamma put exposures amidst volatility, there is a potential for a destabilizing, reflexive reaction on the part of dealers.”

The reason is, as volatility rises and customers demand out-of-the-money put protection, counterparties are to hedge by selling stock and futures into weakness. 

Cognizant of the risks, though, I end this section with the following. 

“[D]uring the 12-month period starting six months before and ending six months after a tightening cycle begins, the valuation of the S&P 500 has on average remained remarkably steady,” according to a post by The Market Ear.

At the same time, seasonality is great as, according to Callum Thomas, “Historically most of the time if the market closed up 20%+ for the year, the next year was also positive (84% of the time). As of writing, the market is up some 27% YTD (albeit, this year ain’t over yet!).”

Going forward, we shall monitor for the first signs of instability via spikes in the CBOE Volatility-Of-Volatility Index (INDEX: VVIX) and upward shifts in the VIX futures term structure.

Expectations: As of 6:20 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) may occur.

We monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

Given the passage of OPEX, we ought to give more weight to directional resolve (i.e., trend).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,692.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,723.50 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,735.25 and $4,765.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,692.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as low as the $4,647.25 HVNode and $4,619.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 19, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures diverged as the S&P 500 attempted a breakout, failed, and rotated back into range, leaving some signs of excess (i.e., a proper end to auction) on the composite volume profile. Learn about the profile.

This comes ahead of a weighty options expiration that ought to resolve this market of the dynamics that promoted sideways trade over the past couple of weeks. Attention, after today, shifts to weakening breadth, seasonality, emerging fundamental nuances, and the like, as a result.

Ahead is some Fed-speak and no major economic releases. 

Graphic updated 6:15 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Yesterday, on nonparticipatory intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred; the S&P 500, after liquidating against a divergent volume delta (i.e., a metric that may reveal participants’ commitment to buying and selling as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) was responsively bought at its lows.

The low-of-day coincided with the $4,674.25 micro-composite point of control, the place at which two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions, and the volume-weighted average price (i.e., the place at which liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell) anchored from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) event, weeks ago. 

The aforementioned activity left behind a double-distribution profile structure; participants initiated from one area of acceptance to another, closing just beyond what analysis provider SpotGamma sees is the options strike with the highest Absolute Gamma.

As discussed day after day, leading up to today’s monthly options expiration (OPEX), this cluster of options positioning was to restrain (i.e., make it difficult for) directional resolve.

The reason is, as OPEX nears and participants concentrate their activity on shorter-dated expiries (such as the one rolling off today), there’s an increased share who are willing to bet the market won’t move higher. In expressing this bet, participants opt to sell-to-open call exposure, for instance, leaving the counterparty/dealer warehousing exposure to positive options gamma. 

As this trend continues (and time to expiry narrows), dealers’ exposure to positive options gamma rises. In offsetting this risk, they sell to open (buy-to-open) the underlying as price rises (declines). This responsive buying and selling are what causes the market to balance (i.e., trade sideways) in a tight range. It ought to end after OPEX, as that options exposure rolls off

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance and not ready to break).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of dynamics I touched on in weeks prior, as well as yesterday’s commentary

This is, specifically, the bond market’s pricing of risk.

According to Bloomberg, based on an “erratic … handling [of] large transfers of risk,” as evidenced by the Merrill Lynch Option Volatility Estimate (INDEX: MOVE), the bond market’s pricing of risk, so to speak, has diverged from the pricing of equity market risk, via the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX).

Graphic: “The ICE BofA MOVE Index, which measures implied volatility for Treasuries, is close to the steepest level since April 2020,” via Bloomberg.

That said, fear in one market tends to feed into the fear of another; regardless of the cause, equity and bond market participants are not on the same page.

What is the fear all about? Well, at its core, the fear coincides with “broad uncertainty about the direction of the economy and monetary policy amid surging prices, labor shortages and yields that are holding well below the rate of inflation,” according to Bloomberg.

As asked, yesterday, in combating high inflation, policymakers ought to raise rates, right? 

That’s precisely what economists at institutions like JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) believe may happen as soon as next September, earlier than once forecasted.

Rising rates, among other factors, have the potential to decrease the present value of future earnings, thereby making stocks, especially those that are high growth, less attractive to own.

As the market is a forward-looking mechanism, the implications of this seem staggering. 

Prevailing monetary frameworks and max liquidity promoted a large divergence in price from fundamentals. The growth of passive investing – the effect of increased moneyness among nonmonetary assets – and derivatives trading imply a lot of left-tail risks.

As Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan once told me: “There’s this constant structural positioning that naturally drives markets higher as long as volatility is compressed,” or there is supply.

“At the end of the day, though, the higher you go, the further off the ground you are and the more tail risk.”

Eventually, fear on the part of bond market participants may feed into equity market positioning.

In rounding out this section, I, again, want to mention the pinning in the broad market, as well as the performance of underlying constituents. If you’ve paid much of any attention, there is some bloodshed going on; breadth is divergent and the indices are sideways to higher, basically.

Graphic: Internally, the market is weak. Externally, via price, the market seems strong. 

The concern is that after OPEX, the absence of supportive vanna and charm flows (defined below), for which we can attribute some of the trends in extended day outperformance, alongside that sticky gamma hedging, so to speak, frees the market for directional resolve. 

Whether or not that resolve is up or down, we know that (as SpotGamma talks more about), participants are underexposed to downside protection. Should volatility pick up, these participants are likely to reach for that protection forcing dealers to reflexively hedge in a destabilizing manner. 

As volatility rises and customers demand out-of-the-money put protection, counterparties are to hedge by selling into weakness. The conditions worsen when much of the activity is in shorter-dated tenors where options gamma is more punchy if we will.

Pictured: SqueezeMetrics highlights implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. The left orange marker is reflective of a basic reaction to call-buying (as observed during the rise of meme stocks). The right orange marker reflects a reaction to put-buying (as observed during the COVID-19 sell-off).

Expectations: As of 6:15 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the lower part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Failure: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) nearly occurred on a higher time frame.

In monitoring for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area, we saw an overnight rejection (i.e., return inside of balance). This portends a move to the opposite end of the balance. 

Given OPEX, though, we ought to give more weight to continued balance (i.e., sideways trade).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,692.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,723.50 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,735.25 and $4,765.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,692.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as low as the $4,647.25 HVNode and $4,619.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

Options: If an option buyer was short (long) stock, he or she would buy a call (put) to hedge upside (downside) exposure. Option buyers can also use options as an efficient way to gain directional exposure.

VPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure. 

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 12, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity indices were flat-to-up while commodities and bonds were sideways to lower.

The prevailing narratives include the prospects of a Russian invasion of Ukraine, COVID-19 resurgence in the U.S., concerns over the pace of inflation and its impact on the economy, China developer debt payments, and the like. Your typical doom and gloom stuff!

Ahead is data on job openings, University of Michigan consumer sentiment, and five-year inflation expectations (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 5:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On lackluster intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by the balance and overlap of value areas in the S&P 500.

This activity, which suggests participants’ willingness to position for directional resolve, comes alongside the presence of poor structure, a dynamic that adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a lot of big-picture dynamics such as the growth of derivatives exposure and tail risk, the heightened moneyness of nonmonetary assets, trends in seasonality, buybacks, earnings growth, inflation, and more.

Graphic: “Whenever the market has been up 20%+ YTD through to October (like e.g. THIS YEAR), it has *always* had an up month in November (albeit with a n=8). Basically I would say it speaks to the momentum in the market, which despite the September stumble seems pretty much alive and well.” – Callum Thomas

On the topic of inflation, the October consumer price index (CPI) is worrisome, according to some. 

“We think it is time to rethink positioning related to inflation,” Citigroup Inc (NYSE: C) strategists led by Scott Chronert wrote in a note. “A focus on sectors and industry groups negatively correlated to inflation provides a contrarian opportunity.” 

Citi sees value in consumer and health-care stocks, as a result of negative correlations to CPI.

Despite the hot prints, the CPI doesn’t paint the entire picture; it’s too soon to change rate-hike calculations, according to the Federal Reserve’s Mary Daly. 

Graphic: U.S. inflation, expected Fed rate increases via Bloomberg

That thinking brings me back to recent comments made by Ark Invest’s Cathie Wood.

Mainly, Wood feels that inflation is on its way out with a decline in the velocity of money and increased moneyness of nonmonetary assets.

A prime example of this is inflation in housing; “Ivy Zelman of Zelman Research came out this week. She made a fantastic call on the housing bubble and bust starting in 05-06, and she was right, just a little early. She is very concerned that the housing prices we’re seeing right now are not sustainable,” because of speculation, as well as iBuying and private equity. 

“This is unsustainable … and I’m wondering if even the housing market inflation is going to give way, here,” Wood added. 

For now, with more of the same – bullishness in the face of moderating monetary policy, strong retail participation, seasonality, and buybacks supporting the valuations we’re at, now – what other narratives are there to add (or roll forward)?

Given my interest in the options market – because option volumes are comparable to stock volumes and related hedging flows, as a result, represent an increased share of volume in underlying stocks – I’m in the camp of “the market is fragile, given current positioning.”

According to SpotGamma, single-stock exuberance of the past weeks fed into the S&P complex, itself, evidenced by a lack of interest in put options at lower strikes; the S&P 500 options strike with the largest negative gamma – delta sensitivity to underlying price – failed to roll higher, while the strike of the option with the largest positive gamma did. 

This came as investors marked the S&P 500 up to the $4,700.00 strike, at which positive gamma – delta sensitivity to underlying price – is highest. 

“As volatility continues to decline, the gamma of those options, which are now at the money, ought to increase, forcing counterparties to supply more liquidity,” SpotGamma explained.

Therefore, coming into this week, $4,700.00 was expected to be a magnet (or resistance) into that aforementioned pre-monthly options expiration (OPEX) weakness.

Graphic: @pat_hennessy breaks down returns for the S&P 500, categorized by the week relative to OPEX. 

This was unless (1) volatility declined markedly, “a tailwind for the S&P complex as options slid[ing] down their term structure would cause dealers to continue covering their hedges in an asymmetric manner,” or (2) more capital was committed to options at higher strikes. 

Neither happened.

Instead, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, with demand coming in across the front area of the VIX futures term structure. This suggested a demand for hedges and a reduction in the flows (e.g., vanna) that support sideways to higher trade. 

Pictured: SqueezeMetrics highlights implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. The left orange marker is reflective of a basic reaction to call-buying (as observed during the rise of meme stocks). The right orange marker reflects a reaction to put-buying (as observed during the COVID-19 sell-off).

The implications of customers now covering their levered, long-delta exposure and demanding out-of-the-money hedges may have the effect of forcing counterparties to hedge in a manner that exacerbates underlying price movement to the downside (e.g., Tesla).

With that single-stock exuberance still reflected by positioning in the S&P, itself, as SpotGamma said: “This sets us up for what may be a volatile pre- and post-OPEX week.”
Graphic: S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity for Thursday, November 11, 2021. SHIFT shows increased volume of put options in strikes prices at and below current prices.

Expectations: As of 5:30 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) ought to occur on a break of day-session balance.

We monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,647.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,673.00 untested point of control (VPOC)

Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $4,695.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,711.75 regular trade high (RTH High), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,647.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,619.00 VPOC

Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as $4,590.00, a prior balance area high (BAH), and $4,574.25 HVNode, or lower.

To note, a breach of Wednesday’s low likely puts the S&P 500 in a short-gamma environment.

Those participants that take the other side of options trades will hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. 

When dealers are short-gamma, they buy into strength and sell into weakness, exacerbating volatility. 

When dealers are long-gamma, they buy into weakness and sell into strength, calming volatility.

--

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Cave-Fill Process: Widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 2, 2021

Abstract

Equity index futures mixed. Commodities mixed. Bonds sideways to lower. Volatility expanded.

Ahead is a light day of economic releases, in the face of fundamental narratives and positioning metrics that support intraday price stability.

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways as participants sought to position themselves for guidance on monetary policy, later this week.

Ahead is data on homeownership rates (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Action: On divergent intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by the S&P 500’s acceptance of prices within Friday’s late-day spike, out of balance.

Intent: As also evidenced by the overlap of value areas, the acceptance of prices, within Friday’s late-day spike, out of balance, marks a potential willingness to continue sideways.

Validation: Sideways trade, above the $4,590.00 balance area high (BAH), validates the market’s prevailing intent to base ahead of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) decision, later this week.

Consideration: Weak structure left behind prior initiative trade adds to technical instability. 

To elaborate, for instance, Monday’s trade found responsive buyers at the $4,587.00 untested point of control (VPOC). This level likely was only known by participants who act on visual cues. 

These technically-driven participants are generally thought to not be able to defend retests. Therefore, these participants ought to quickly liquidate, if proven wrong, on a break of the BAH.

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Ample liquidity, peak growth, inflation, strong seasonality and buybacks, as well as monetary and fiscal policy uncertainties, and single-stock volatility.

Graphic: S&P 500 seasonality via The Market Ear.

Based on this context, Moody’s Corporation (NYSE: MCO) forecasts a peak; “The Dow Jones Industrial Average has peaked and will gradually decline during the next year. Risks are heavily weighted to the upside, but peak growth, inflation uncertainty around fiscal policy, and the Fed tapering could weigh on equity markets.”

In terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, while demand came in across the VIX futures term structure, suggesting participants are inclined to hedge against near-term equity market instability.

Such a situation, in addition to the long-gamma environment (in which counterparties hedge their warehoused options risk by buying underlying into weakness and selling into strength), has the effect of making it difficult to resolve directionally.

The reason is, there are two knowns; as volatility contracts, (1) options will slide down their term structure (vanna) and (2) skew decays (charm). 

When this happens, we expect to see supportive flows when the dealers cover their short equity/futures hedges. With volatility bid, the effect of vanna and charm is dulled. It is likely that participants see more robust movement after the FOMC announcement, later this week.

In a separate note on volatility in stocks like Tesla Inc (NASDAQ: TSLA), SpotGamma says the following: “These rampant moves are appearing to be more widespread, and we believe this invokes instability that usually ends badly.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the top part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) occurred.

We monitor for continued acceptance outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., a move below the balance area high) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance, lower.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,590.00 BAH puts in play the $4,619.50 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,639.00 and $4,664.75 Fibonacci figures, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,590.00 BAH puts in play the $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode), and $4,526.25 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

Options: If an option buyer was short (long) stock, he or she would buy a call (put) to hedge upside (downside) exposure. Option buyers can also use options as an efficient way to gain directional exposure.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 1, 2021

Abstract

Equity index futures higher. Commodities mixed. Bonds lower. Volatility expanded.

Ahead is a light day of economic releases, in the face of fundamental narratives and positioning metrics that promote less intraday volatility into FOMC.

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways to higher as participants seek clarity on the Federal Reserve’s intent to taper asset purchases and hike interest rates.

Ahead is data on Markit manufacturing PMI (9:45 AM ET), as well as the ISM manufacturing index and construction spending (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Action: On divergent intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by a spike away from value in the S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) (ETF: SPY) (FUTURE: /ES).

Intent: The spike (and overnight gap, out of balance) mark a willingness to continue the trend.

Validation: Sideways to higher trade (above the $4,596.50 spike base) validates the market’s prevailing intent to markup prices ahead of impactful events like this week’s meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC).

Consideration: Poor structure left behind prior initiative trade adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap.

Context: On no substantial change in volume and expansion of range, we see the Nasdaq 100 (INDEX: NDX) (ETF: QQQ) (FUTURE: /NQ) trading strong, relative to its peers.

Given where the S&P 500’s price is in relation to the yellow volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored from 9/2/2021, the average buyer, since that date, is in a winning position.

Generally speaking, sideways to higher trade, above the yellow VWAP, puts in play the Fibonacci resistances overhead.

Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE: SPY) top left, Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1 (NASDAQ: QQQ) top right, iShares Russell 2000 ETF (NYSE: IWM) bottom left, SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF Trust (NYSE: DIA) bottom right. The S&P 500, in particular, is out of balance on the daily, weekly, and monthly. Key levels – SPY (S~442.00, R~461.58), QQQ (S~369.66, R~391.52), IWM (S~222.58, R~234.53) where S is support and R is resistance.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of peak growth, in the face of inflation, uncertainty around fiscal policy (with respect to dynamics like the debt ceiling), and increased prospects of tapering to Federal Reserve (Fed) asset purchases.

The implications of these themes on price are contradictory

To elaborate, Moody’s expects the Fed to taper its asset purchases in December by $15 billion. 

Every single month after, the Fed will continue to reduce purchases by $15 billion with the tapering process expected to be done by mid-2022. Proceeds from maturing assets will be reinvested to prevent balance sheet contraction and rate hikes ought to start in early 2023.

Moody’s notes: “Tapering won’t impact inflation. Though tapering won’t be disinflationary, it could help keep market-based measures of inflation expectations anchored, since tapering is the preamble to the Fed beginning to tighten monetary policy either by allowing its balance sheet to decline and/or by increasing the target range for the fed funds rate.”

In terms of positioning, according to SqueezeMetrics, “middling dark pool sentiment and middling gamma exposure [portends] … 1-month negative returns.”

At the same time, SpotGamma models forecast hedging (by dealers who warehouse options risk) may promote tighter ranges as dealers sell into strength, increasingly. Until event volatility leaves the market, post-FOMC, odds of directional resolve will continue to be limited as higher implied volatility takes away from important dynamics that bolster movement.

Couple that with the intent to normalize policy, the environment “creates a little bit of a challenge for [the] equity market because it does change the drivers of equity performance,” says HSBC Holdings Plc’s (NYSE: HSBC) Joseph Little.

Graphic: A “gentle reminder of the fact tapering matters,” via The Market Ear.

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value. This suggests a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,596.50 spike base puts in play the $4,618.50 Fibonacci resistance. Initiative trade beyond $4,618.50 could reach as high as the $4,639.00 and $4,664.75 Fibonacci resistances, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,596.50 spike base puts in play the $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode) and $4,526.25 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) is occurring.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 29, 2021

Abstract

In sync with bonds, equity index futures were sideways to lower. Commodities were mixed. Volatility expanded.

  • Economic growth rate slows 2%.
  • Fed may not follow counterparts.
  • Increased prospects for volatility.

What Happened

U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to lower overnight, within the prior day’s range, as investors looked to price in emerging dynamics with respect to slower growth and inflation, as well as the risks of a taper in asset purchases and a hike in interest rates. 

Ahead is data on income, consumer spending, core inflation, and the employment cost index (8:30 AM ET), as well as Chicago PMI (9:45 AM ET), consumer sentiment, and inflation expectations (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 7:00 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Action: During the prior day’s regular trade, on supportive intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by a spike above current S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) (ETF: SPY) (FUTURE: /ES) prices.

Intent: The spike marked a willingness to continue the trend.

Validation: Overnight, Thursday’s end-of-day price discovery, away from value, was not validated; after two weeks of markup, participants are likely basing ahead of new information.

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap.

Context: After unimpressive earnings results by Amazon Inc (NASDAQ: AMZN) and Apple Inc (NASDAQ: AAPL), on no substantial change in volume and minimal expansion of range, we see the Nasdaq 100 (INDEX: NDX) (ETF: QQQ) (FUTURE: /NQ) trading weak, relative to its peers. 

This comes as three of the major indices (pictured below) struggle to maintain prices above their September peaks.

Still, as evidenced by where the indices are in relation to their yellow volume-weighted average price (VWAP) indicators, the average buyer, since the last major peak, is in a profitable position. 

Should indices snap lower, those VWAPs ought to serve as dynamic support levels.

Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE: SPY) top left, Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1 (NASDAQ: QQQ) top right, iShares Russell 2000 ETF (NYSE: IWM) bottom left, SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF Trust (NYSE: DIA) bottom right. The S&P 500, in particular, is out of balance on the weekly and monthly, in balance on the daily.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of slowing growth, as well as the risks of a taper in asset purchases and a hike in interest rates.

According to a note by The Market Ear, however, JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) Jay Barry believes “Inflation developments have been global in nature and inflation is indeed proving to be less transitory than previously expected.”

“Our understanding of the Fed’s reaction function, as well as our view on likely compositional changes on the FOMC, leads us to believe that the Fed is unlikely to follow its British and Canadian counterparts in raising rates too early simply on inflation concerns.”

In terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, while the VIX futures term structure settled in contango, shifting a tad higher across the entire curve. That dynamic, coupled with the long-gamma environment, signals a potential for very near-term stability.

On the other hand, according to SqueezeMetrics analyses, “middling dark pool sentiment and middling gamma exposure [portends] … 1-month negative returns.”

That’s in line with what SpotGamma sees as a potential window for volatility – given OPEX – into next week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting.

“It’s likely that traders will not look to sell volatility on Monday/Tuesday (pre-Fed) which could bring a pause to this market rise.”

Expectations: As of 7:00 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET) in the S&P 500 will likely open in the lower part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) may occur.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode) puts in play the $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the $4,574.25 HVNode could reach as high as the $4,590.00 minimal excess high and $4,602.50 Fibonacci extension, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,551.75 LVNode puts in play the $4,526.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the $4,526.25 HVNode could reach as low as the $4,510.25 LVNode and $4,495.75 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure. In recent history, this reset in dealer positioning has been front-run; prior, there was an increase in volatility after the removal of large options positions and associated hedging.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 7, 2021

Market Commentary

Led by the Nasdaq 100, equity index futures were higher. Commodities and bonds were mixed.

  • Relief of worries over debt, energy.
  • Claims and credit data, Fed speak.
  • Positioning suggests risk to upside.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures continued higher overnight alongside ease in angst over debt and energy worries.

Ahead is data on jobless claims (8:30 AM ET), Fed speak by John Williams (8:40 AM ET), Fed speak by Loretta Mester (11:45 AM ET), as well as consumer credit data (3:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:20 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:20 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a heightened potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on negative intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by trade above the level of a key volume-weighted average price (VWAP).

Graphic: SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, encounters responsive buying at key volume-weighted average price levels. 
Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Thereafter, equity index futures, led by the Nasdaq 100, continued higher overnight, leaving behind a multi-session balance area (between the $4,363.25 and $4,278.00 HVNodes).

This trade is significant because it marks a rejection, or a willingness to not transact at lower prices. We’re carrying forward, though, the presence of poor structures (e.g., Wednesday’s advance away from session value on a taper of volume, and minimal excess lows which suggest a lack of commitment to take prices lower).

Gap + Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) has occurred.

At the same time, gaps ought to fill quickly. Should any gap not fill, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. 

Therefore, the objective is to monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October, as well as narratives surrounding adjustments to monetary policy, debt ceiling complications, and energy crises.

These themes support fear and uncertainty; for instance, Nordea believes there are “4 macro reasons why 2022 should be noisier than 2021: liquidity, growth slowdown, cost/margin problems and the risk of the Fed put looking very different if inflation indicators stay elevated.”

However, the Senate is nearing a deal to raise the debt ceiling, relieving the threat of imminent default; this was a likely development given that “lawmakers [knew] that voting against raising the debt ceiling would have enormous economic costs,” Moody’s noted.

Also, on the energy crisis front, Russia offered to export record volumes of fuel to Europe as winter approaches fast.

Given these developments, Tracie McMillion, head of global asset allocation strategy at Wells Fargo & Co’s (NYSE: WFC) Investment Institute said the following on Bloomberg: “We have several things that we are watching right now – certainly the debt ceiling is one of them and that’s been contributing to the recent volatility, … but we look for these 5% corrections to add money to the equity markets.”

Adding, prior to yesterday’s advance, this newsletter noted that indices were best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery metrics likely reached a limit

Graphic: ​​On October 5, 2021, according to SqueezeMetrics, “Net Put Delta (NPD) and the customer Vanna-Gamma Ratio (VGR) [] settled in a *bullish* place. Risk to the upside.”

After consolidating for numerous sessions, participants resolved the developing balance area (between the $4,363.25 and $4,278.00 HVNodes) on new information that warranted a directional move. 

In other words, the overnight session confirmed the bull thesis

We note, amidst a decline in top-of-book depth, as well as back and forth entry (exit) into (from) short-gamma, we limit our expectations based on some of the recent realized volatility.

In a quote highlighted by The Market Ear, Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC) explained: “last Thursday was the 24th time since 1928 that the S&P experienced two or more 3-sigma shocks in 10 trading days, … [and] only in 3 of 23 episodes (and 1 in the last 50yrs) did the S&P surpass the prior month’s peak in the month following the second shock.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,377.00 overnight point of control (O/N POC) puts in play the $4,410.25 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,437.75 micro-composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,481.75 high volume area (HVNode), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,377.00 O/N POC puts in play the $4,363.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,332.25 LVNode and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 7:10 AM ET.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

More On Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

News And Analysis

NFT game wants you to spend real money buying fake shares.

Senate is poised to pull nation back from default brink, for now.

Global banks retain competitive advantage amid big obstacles.

Russia offers to ease Europe’s gas crisis with strings attached.

Digitalization of markets: how digital bonds can disrupt market.

U.S. utilities and regulators gear up for electric vehicle outlook.

ECB studies a new bond-buying plan for when crisis tool ends.

S&P on navigating a pathway to a low-carbon global economy. 

Rivian’s electric truck gets all attention but fate tied to Amazon.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

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