Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For December 14, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were mixed after Monday’s failed balance-area breakout in the S&P 500 had that index rotate to and through the opposite end of a multi-day consolidation.

This is as market participants await clarity on monetary policy from the Federal Reserve and the weighty “quad-witching” derivatives expiry, late this week. 

Ahead is data on the producer price index (8:30 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-Off if expected /ES open is below the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

A change in the market was occurring, yesterday, as participants sought to break the S&P 500 out of a multi-day balance area and discover higher prices.

Shortly after the U.S. cash open, however, there was no follow-through; the index liquidated to the opposite end of the balance with sellers turning aggressive into the close.

Selling carried-forward, overnight, as the S&P 500 made it through the low-end of balance before finding responsive buyers at an anchored volume-weighted average price (VWAP) level, at which liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell.

As noted many sessions ago, prior discovery left gaps and p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structures (i.e., old-money covering shorts).

Participants are now revisiting, repairing, and strengthening – building out areas of high volume (HVNodes) via the cave-fill process – these areas of low volume (LVNodes).

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed selling into end-of-day as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. Though initial readings were supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit), selling turned aggressive with the S&P 500 breaking its multi-day consolidation low, overnight.

Context: The S&P 500 can’t seem to crack the pin beneath $4,700.00.

This pin is the result of customers committing capital to bets on low volatility into this week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting and Friday’s large derivatives expiry.

Graphic: Customers increased their exposure to short-delta call exposure. “Last week was about selling index calls,” SpotGamma’s Brent Kochuba said on Twitter. “This is likely why the $SPX stopped at $4,700.00.”

According to SpotGamma, participants are increasing their short-delta exposure (via a lot of call selling and a bit of put buying). 

In hedging their rising (declining) long-delta exposure, the dealer or counterparty to this positioning will sell (buy) futures into strength (weakness)

This forces the market into a consolidation

This trend ought to continue until (A) there’s a collapse in event-related implied volatility which would bring in positive flows as dealers cover static hedges, (B) the poor breadth and single-stock weakness feeds into feverishly destabilizing demand for downside protection, or (C) participants commit more capital to calls further out in time and higher in price.

We talk about the implications of options positioning mainly because it is a growing market that provides a clear indication of how participants (no matter how large) are positioned. 

Also, with FOMC approaching, the “other” timeframe participant (e.g., the hedge funds and institutions behind impactful buy/sell programs) is likely awaiting policy clarity to reposition.

As Mind Over Markets author James Dalton best explained: “Market participants balance their positions in expectation of the market’s reaction to the external stimuli – there is simply no activity. Trade is not being facilitated in any direction, for there is little participation and no confidence.”

Notwithstanding, last night, we broke a multi-session balance area. Based on profile theory, a new trend may begin. Context, though, suggests otherwise. 

Participants (large in size) are seeking clarity and, given the market’s responsiveness to technical levels, weaker, less well-capitalized short-term participants are in control

Therefore, we ought to discount (give less weight to) what happens in the coming days.

If later this week, participants are assuaged of their fears surrounding monetary policy, a collapse in event-related implied volatility ought to bring in positive flows as the long delta (from dealers’ exposure to short puts) decreases.

The decrease in dealer supply (short delta), via covering of short stock/futures hedges, would bolster any attempt higher

According to SpotGamma, if “interest in call options was to grow (evidenced by a shift higher in the Call Wall), a rally into (and beyond) end-of-year is further affirmed.”

That’s not to say that some of the vulnerabilities like participants’ large exposure to leveraged products (which increases the speed with which volatility is realized) couldn’t prompt a round of destabilizing demand for downside protection.

So, the question is whether the few companies leading this year’s rally can continue to lead? 

Or, in light of recent exuberance in heavy-weights like Apple Inc (NASDAQ: AAPL), in which participants are underexposed to downside protection, post-FOMC demand for protection bids volatility and results in a destabilizing, reflexive reaction on the part of dealers.

Graphic: As U.S. stocks’ inflation-adjusted earnings yield turns negative, as seen near the peak of the tech bubble, via Bloomberg, “Investors in the Nasdaq increasingly seem to think that only a few companies have much of a chance. With a growing possibility of more aggressive attempts to prosecute antitrust issues, that’s a riskier position than it appears.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the lower part of a balanced overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break + Gap Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) is occurring.

Monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area. 

Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator. 

Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,647.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,657.00 balance area low (BAL). Initiative trade beyond the BAL could reach as high as the $4,674.25 HVNode and $4,690.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,647.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,618.75 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the latter could reach as low as the $4,581.00 and $4,523.00 untested point of control (VPOC), or lower.

Click here to load today’s key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Cave-Fill Process: Widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Liquidation Breaks: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Initiative Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) within or above (below) the previous day’s value area.

Responsive Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) in response to prices below (above) an area of recent price acceptance.

Price Discovery (One-Timeframe Or Trend): Elongation and range expansion denotes a market seeking new prices to establish value, or acceptance (i.e., more than 30-minutes of trade at a particular price level). 

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, helping develop insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not carry the right to provide advice. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For December 1, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures traded sideways to higher, led by the once-weak Russell 2000. 

The shift in relative strength is one obvious change in tone in the face of hawkish news from the Federal Reserve (Fed) and COVID-19 uncertainty. 

Ahead is data on ADP employment (8:15 AM ET), Markit manufacturing PMI (9:45 AM ET), ISM manufacturing index, construction spending, as well as testimony by Federal Reserve’s Jerome Powell and Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen (10:00 AM ET). 

Later is a release of the Beige Book (2:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On lackluster breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by an expansion of the S&P 500’s range, as well as increased participation at lower prices, as evidenced by lower value (i.e., the prices at which 70% of the day’s volume occurred).

Though yesterday marked a willingness to continue the trend lower, there are some caveats.

The first of which comes back to simple market profile principles. Value ended on the day overlapping lower. This suggests balance and an unchanged perception of value from Friday. 

This dynamic ties into what was discussed yesterday. Given a push-pull environment between the big indices (i.e., strength in Nasdaq 100 versus weakness in Russell 2000), in the face of lackluster breadth and market liquidity metrics, there were increased odds of sideways trade; “participants were likely to base for a directional move in anticipation of new information.”

Second, according to SpotGamma, “in the face of a massive -$8bn market-on-close order, dealers likely were covering their hedges to customers’ short-delta options exposure.”

The implications of the latter are staggering. Let’s unpack, below.

Graphic: SpotGamma’s Hedging Impact of Real-Time Options (HIRO) indicator shows positive options delta trades firing off, which likely had dealers buying stock/futures into the close.

Context: The Fed’s Powell changed his tone around inflation, yesterday, becoming more open to a faster taper in bond-buying and rate hikes. 

As Bloomberg’s John Authers put it: “This looks like inconsistency, and it also looks to some as if Powell has lost his nerve — just as he did three years ago, when the stock market’s horrified reaction to his statement that the Fed’s balance sheet would be reduced ‘on autopilot,’ meaning ever tighter money, prompted a U-turn. In market lore, the ‘Christmas Eve Massacre’ of a cathartic stock sell-off was followed by the ‘Powell Pivot.’”

Graphic: S&P 500 performance in tightening cycles via Ned Davis Research. 

Stocks have recovered markedly, since the news. 

At the outset, as we typically see with news, selling appeared knee-jerk; a b-shaped profile distribution suggested long liquidation (i.e., [1] participants who bought the dip, Friday, were unable to gather the financial and/or emotional wherewithal to defend a retest of local lows and [2] capitulation on the part of larger other time frame participants, potentially).

In regards to the latter, if funds were to sell the market, they would do so methodically, into strength, throughout a session.

Couple the aforementioned with a decline in volatility (despite S&P 500 prices reaching lower lows), it’s clear as to why I started off the commentary suggesting an “obvious change in tone.”

Last week, we saw the market enter into a destabilizing environment characterized by counterparties to options trades selling into weakness and buying into strength. 

Note: Options are so important. Volatility is a growing asset class. Its implications can’t be discounted (e.g., index pinned in the face of single-stock volatility and declining correlations).

After a brief exit from that environment, on Tuesday the market made another attempt lower. With options activity most concentrated in shorter-dated tenors where the sensitivity of options to direction is higher, then the expectation was that we would realize more volatility. 

That happened.

However, volatility, despite spiking, failed to breach Friday levels; in such a case, the short-dated, out-of-the-money protection participants were initially demanding bled.

Given decreased exposure to risk, at least for those participants (e.g., dealers) warehousing this risk, associated hedging flows (i.e., the buy-back of short stock/futures hedges) came onto the market. 

This is clearly visualized by SpotGamma’s HIRO indicator, above. 

In conclusion, should participants continue to markdown volatility, as well as commit more capital to the call side, fears will have been assuaged.

In such a case, the odds of a seasonally-aligned rally, into Christmas, are supported.

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Developing Balance Scenario: Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,618.75 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,647.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the latter HVNode could reach as high as the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,691.25 HVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,618.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,590.00 balance boundary (BAH). Initiative trade beyond the BAH could reach as low as the $4,574.25 HVNode and $4,551.75 LVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Charts To Watch

Graphic: (NYSE: SPY). (S~$454, R~$463). S is for support. R is for resistance.

What People Are Saying

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Definitions

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 29, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways to higher as participants looked to take back nearly all of Friday’s shortened holiday trading range. 

According to some metrics, the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, experienced one of its most illiquid days, Friday.

At the same time, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) closed up nearly 50% while the VIX futures term structure settled in backwardation amidst a re-pricing of tail-risk, so to speak.

Moreover, ahead is data on Pending Home Sales (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 5:50 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Despite the lackluster intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, Friday, evidenced by downside expansion of range and separation of value.

Coming into the session, the experiences associated with ‘Volmageddon’ came to mind; the VIX was up nearly 40.00%, a concern given the exuberance of past weeks and options positioning, as well as a decline in correlations, and unsupportive breadth.

Tempering the fall were divergences; the Russell 2000 was down nearly 4.00% before Friday’s U.S. open while the S&P 500 was off about 2.00% or so, buoyed by the Nasdaq 100 which was only down about 1.00% amidst an 8% dip in the ten-year yield.

The divergence persisted with the S&P 500 closing firmly below its 20-day simple moving average, a visual level often acted on by short-term, technically-driven participants who generally are unable to defend retests.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index.

Context: A resurgence in the COVID-19 coronavirus as an improvement in macroeconomic conditions prompts a hawkish shift from the Federal Reserve (Fed). 

“Many risky asset tailwinds in 2021 are turning into at least mild headwinds in 2022,” Nordea says. “Economic growth should decelerate, liquidity conditions are deteriorating, profit margins should be under pressure from rising costs and question marks regarding the Fed/ECB put will arise due to elevated inflation indicators. To us, this spells higher volatility.”

Moreover, for the past two years, almost, equities rallied amidst an acceleration in growth, which is typically correlated with equity outperformance over bonds.

Graphic: Accelerating growth correlates with equity outperformance over bonds.

At the same time, there’s been an insatiable appetite for stocks, according to Bloomberg, with investors pouring “almost $900 billion into equity exchange-traded and long-only funds in 2021 — exceeding the combined total from the past 19 years.”

This appetite for risk fed into the activity of some high-flyers like Tesla Inc (NASDAQ: TSLA) with customers, at least in the past weeks, opting to aggressively sell puts and buy calls heading into the November monthly options expiration (OPEX).

Graphic: Per The Market Ear, participants were hating on downside protection for weeks.

Unfortunately, (1) after OPEX, the absence of sticky and supportive hedging flows freed the broader market for directional resolve, and (2) according to SpotGamma, in light of recent exuberance, “participants [were] underexposed to downside put protection.”

Graphic: Customers took on significant leverage in their purchase and sale of options, via SpotGamma.

What this meant was that after OPEX’s unpinning and increase in correlation, fundamental contexts were to matter more.

Therefore, the Fed’s “increased openness to accelerat[e] the taper pace” and hike rates, alongside fresh travel restrictions on a new COVID-19 variant, as well as holiday illiquidity, resulted in a rough re-pricing of tail risk as participants sought after those highly “convex” options which had counterparties exacerbating underlying price movement.

Graphic: According to Bloomberg, markets price “a full quarter-point rate hike into the June Fed meeting with a second by September and a third by December.”

To elaborate, in short, was volatility to pick up, those participants (who were once exuberant) were likely to reach for protection forcing dealers to reflexively hedge in a destabilizing manner. 

Dealers is the term used to describe those participants that take the other side and warehouse customer options risk, at least in the case where orders can’t be matched between customers.

With that, as volatility rose and customers demanded protection, counterparties hedged by selling into weakness. The conditions worsened when much of the activity was concentrated in shorter-dated tenors where the sensitivity of options to direction is higher if we will.

Graphic: VIX term structure. Backwardation signals an entry into an unstable environment.

Once that short-dated protection rolls off the table (and/or is monetized), dealers will reverse and support the market, buying to close their existing stock/futures hedges.

This flow is stabilizing and may play into a seasonally-aligned rally into Christmas as participants see defenses rolled out against the new COVID-19 variant, and the positive effects of pro-cyclical inflation and economic growth, improvements in global trade, and continuity at the Fed, among other dynamics, play out.

We see participants opportunistically buying the dip, already, via metrics like DIX that’s derived from liquidity provision on the market-making side.

Expectations: As of 6:00 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,618.75 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,647.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the latter HVNode could reach as high as the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,691.25 HVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,618.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,590.00 balance boundary (BAH). Initiative trade beyond the BAH could reach as low as the $4,574.25 HVNode and $4,551.75 LVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Charts To Watch

Graphic: (NYSE: SPY). (S~$460 and $453). S is for support.
Graphic: (NASDAQ: QQQ). (S~$389 and $381). S is for support.
Graphic: (NYSE: IWM). (S~$222 and $216). S is for support.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Rates: Low rates have to potential to increase the present value of future earnings making stocks, especially those that are high growth, more attractive. To note, inflation and rates move inversely to each other. Low rates stimulate demand for loans (i.e., borrowing money is more attractive).

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 11, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways to higher, recovering much of yesterday’s fast-paced liquidation.

To note, overnight price changes aside, the Nasdaq 100 is trading weak, in comparison to the S&P 500, a dynamic most noticeable in underlying breadth metrics, and the like. 

Ahead, there are no material economic releases.

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Coming into Tuesday’s session, participants knew that the S&P 500 had already undergone somewhat of a lackluster liquidation, Tuesday.

Those behind some of the downside velocity we saw were most likely short-term, momentum-driven participants who had poor location (i.e., those that respond to probes at visual references and lack the wherewithal to withstand major changes in tone).

To note, given the context – weak intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics bolstering an expansion of range below the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) announcement, last week – the poor structure intact from the advance in past weeks remains a concern.

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed selling for most of the day as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap.

Context: Yesterday, I talked in-depth on the implications of high leverage and risk by short-term speculators’ record call buying and put selling. 

To recap, so long as implied volatility remained bid (and stock prices continued rising) – the result of inadequate liquidity – counterparties to highly speculative trades exacerbated upside volatility in their efforts to hedge. 

As implied volatility backed off, counterparties supplied an increasing amount of their underlying hedges, calming the pace of upside price discovery.

When the high-flying stocks (like Tesla, which is a large S&P 500 index constituent) finally made the turn, the bulk of customers’ short puts (long calls) quickly rose (declined) in value, trading in-the-money (out-of-the-money). 

Due in part to short-term speculators lacking the wherewithal to stay in their margin-intensive positions, as the price fell, put buying (covering of shorts, too) took liquidity and destabilized the market.

Graphic: SqueezeMetrics unpacks implications of short put options on the limit order book.

According to SpotGamma, the exuberance of the past weeks fed into the S&P complex, itself, evidenced by a lack of interest in put options at lower strikes. In other words, the S&P 500 options strike with the largest negative gamma – delta sensitivity to underlying price – failed to roll higher, while the strike of the option with the largest positive gamma did. 

With implied volatility declining into the S&P’s price rise, last week (a dynamic that, at least in recent history, leads into increased call selling, more dealer hedging, and liquidity, as well as further realized volatility suppression), associated hedging at those strikes pressured prices.

The upside was resisted and we pinned. 

Coming into this week, however, CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, with demand coming in across the front area of the VIX futures term structure. This suggested a demand for hedges and a reduction in the flows (e.g., vanna) that support sideways to higher trade. 

Graphic: Charting the CBOE Volatility-Of-Volatility Index (INDEX: VVIX) and the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX). Though both were higher, expectations of the volatility of volatility rose. Participants are reaching for those highly “convex” options which have counterparties reacting in a manner that exacerbates underlying price movement.

The implications of customers now covering their levered, long-delta exposure and demanding out-of-the-money hedges has the effect of forcing counterparties to hedge in a manner that exacerbates underlying price movement to the downside. 

This was the concern. This is what we’re starting to see.

Typically, the period leading up to the monthly options expiration (OPEX) is weak (at least in recent times) and so this trend of lower price and higher intraday volatility may persist up until that event clears counterparties’ gamma exposure and frees the market to move, more.

That’s when fundamental context likely plays a more important role. 

According to a Barclays (NYSE: BCS) note featured by The Market Ear, earnings are a tailwind.

“Amid a potentially higher macro volatility regime, we expect earnings to remain a tailwind for equities in ’22. Given our economists’ forecast of above-trend GDP growth of 4.5%, our base case gives 14% EPS growth for Europe, vs. the IBES estimate of 7%. Sticky supply bottlenecks are a threat, but margins typically expanded when global growth was above 3%, while ULCs should remain low. With comps less easy now, sector contributions to EPS growth should be more balanced between Cyclicals and Defensives, but still higher for the former.”

At the same time, in the face of inflation rising at the fastest rate since 1990, we have strong retail participation, seasonality, and buybacks to support the valuations we’re at, now.

Graphic: Inflow mania continues, via The Market Ear.

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,657.75 low volume area (LVNode) puts in play the $4,673.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as high as the $4,695.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,711.75 regular trade high (RTH High), or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,657.75 LVNode puts in play the $4,619.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as $4,590.00, a prior balance area high (BAH), and $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode), or lower.

To note, a breach of the prior day’s low likely puts the S&P 500 in a short-gamma environment. When dealers are short-gamma, they buy into strength and sell into weakness, exacerbating volatility. When dealers are long-gamma, they buy into weakness and sell into strength, calming volatility.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Note the low-volume structure beneath current prices. There is the potential for a cave-fill to widen the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Volume-Weighted Average Prices (VWAPs): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 10, 2021

What Happened

Equity index futures sideways, overnight, on powerful derivative market forces, alongside participants’ aims to base ahead of added clarity on the economic outlook.

Ahead is data on inflation and jobless claims (8:30 AM ET), wholesale inventories (10:00 AM ET), and the monthly budget statement (2:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 5:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

As evidenced by a b-shaped liquidation break profile distribution (i.e., morning drop on fast tempo, followed by sideways trade) there was likely selling by short-term momentum-driven participants who had poor location.

We are confident this may be the case given where the price is, relative to the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) announcement, last week; the average buyer, since then, is losing.

To note, given the context – lackluster breadth and market liquidity metrics – the failure to expand the range, markedly, suggests there was no new money selling.

This activity, which marks a potential willingness to clear stubborn inventory and break balance, is occurring in the face of poor structure down below, a dynamic that adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Yesterday, I made an emphasis on some of the “high leverage and risk” short-term speculators’ record call buying and put selling posed on the equity market, at large.

That’s odd. Why? 

Well, into the near-vertical price rise of highly volatile stocks like Tesla Inc (NASDAQ: TSLA), customers (you and I) signed up, through the agency of counterparties, to add liquidity to the market, via options activity.

Graphic: Customers took on significant leverage in their purchase and sale of options, via SpotGamma.

So long as implied volatility remained bid (and stock prices go to the moon) – the effect of inadequate liquidity – counterparties were to exacerbate upside volatility in hedging their exposure to customer positioning. In other words, dealer short-gamma.

Note those participants that take the other side of options trades will hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. 

When dealers are short-gamma (e.g., Tesla), they buy into strength and sell into weakness, exacerbating volatility

When dealers are long-gamma (e.g., S&P 500), counterparties buy into weakness and sell into strength, calming volatility.

Enter shock – Elon Musk selling Tesla stock – alongside a decline in implied volatility, amidst a build of gamma at higher stock prices (which has the effect of dampening realized volatility), we saw the unthinkable happen; high-flying stocks (more so Tesla, which is a large S&P 500 index constituent) turned away from the moon and headed back to earth.

The implications of this were staggering; the bulk of customers’ short puts (long calls) quickly rose (declined) in value and traded in-the-money (out-of-the-money). 

As SpotGamma noted, yesterday, “[t]here was a serious dearth of liquidity to start today’s session,” and volatility rose, as a result, in compensating for that fact.

Now, if customer short put, counterparty long put. 

To hedge, counterparty ought to buy, right? Nope

As SqueezeMetrics explains, “Sold puts are, quite literally, a bunch of huge buy limit orders below the market, and then a bunch of liquidity-taking stop-losses further down.”

Graphic: SqueezeMetrics unpacks implications of short put options on the limit order book.

This is, to put it simply, due in part to short-term speculators lacking the wherewithal to stay in these margin-intensive positions; as price falls, put buying (covering of shorts, too) takes liquidity and destabilizes the market.

We’re starting to see this activity, in individual stocks, affect the S&P 500 complex, too

The CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, with demand coming in across the front area of the VIX futures term structure, mostly; both suggest a demand for hedges and a reduction in the flows (e.g., vanna) that support sideways to higher trade. 

Graphic: Demand for options hedges comes in at the front end of the term structure.

That has already been reflected by the trend of outperformance in the extended day. 

In other words, the front-running of increasingly impactful (and supportive) vanna and charm flows (both of which are tied to the hedging of options exposure), as a result of increased options activity (which, at least at this juncture, exposes customers to high leverage and risk), seems to be changing, slowly. 

We’re (likely) opening sideways to lower today. That’s a change, for once!

With expectations that there may be a front-running of the monthly (OPEX) options expiration (into which the forces that promote pining usually turn stronger with counterparties supplying more liquidity as their long gamma rises), a time when dealer gamma exposure is to decline, allowing for increased realized volatility (as a result of less liquidity), the added demand for hedges (as evidenced by the bid in volatility and VIX term structure shift), is of concern. 

Participants have been uber bullish, up until early this week. Should sentiment turn, and (1) those participants cover their levered, long delta exposure alongside (2) new money hedging, tempo ought to quicken; an abrupt liquidation could be in the cards.

Graphic: @pat_hennessy breaks down returns for the S&P 500, categorized by the week relative to OPEX. 

In light of seasonality, buybacks, and earnings surprises, the potential for a rally into the end of the year remains strong. As a result, we start to look for big picture references where we may see responsive buying. See the graphic below!

Expectations: As of 5:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance Scenarios: Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,680.25 overnight high (ONH) puts in play the $4,695.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as high as the $4,711.75 regular trade high and $4,722.00 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,680.25 ONH puts in play the $4,658.75 overnight low (ONL). Initiative trade beyond the ONL could reach as low as the $4,619.00 untested point of control (VPOC) and $4,590.00 balance area boundary, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Note the low-volume structure beneath current prices. There is the potential for a cave-fill to widen the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 12, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures recover after Monday’s liquidation and brief overnight follow-through. Commodities were mixed and bonds were sideways to higher.

  • Market positioning for an EOY rally?
  • Ahead: Job openings, inflation data.
  • New feature to view real-time levels.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures recover from earlier bearishness, absent impactful fundamental narratives.

Ahead is data on the job openings (10:00 AM ET) and the median expected 3-year inflation rate (11:00 AM ET). 

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:30 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 may open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

This comes after a volatile Monday.

At the outset, initiative sellers painted themselves into a corner at the convergence of the $4,363.25 high volume area (HVNode) pivot and an anchored volume-weighted average price.

Note: Liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs, a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among others, for quality of trade.

After participants failed to muster the wherewithal to take prices lower, the S&P 500 then endured a rapid short-covering rally intraday – as evidenced by emotional, multiple distribution profile structures – before the momentum from covering shorts faded.

Thereafter, the S&P 500 liquidated, leaving behind a minimal excess high just south of the $4,408.75 low volume area (LVNode) and $4,415.00 untested point of control (VPOC).

Despite the spike and weak close, there was a minimal separation in value (i.e., the area where 70% of the day’s volume occurred); in other words, though participants valued lower prices, the knee-jerk, end-of-day move was not validated by increased trade at lower price levels.

Overnight exploration provided that validation before a massive change in tone after about 2:00 AM ET. Thereafter, indices recovered the prior day’s close.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a seasonal cycle of rebalancing and earnings, improvement among some positioning metrics, among other things. 

These themes support (1) October volatility and (2) an increased potential for sideways to higher trade.

In support is JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) Marko Kolanovic, a big stock market bull; “We believe that this was the last significant wave, and an effective end to the pandemic,” he said.

Kolanovic prefers economically sensitive shares over technology and growth stocks. 

In opposition is Morgan Stanley’s (NYSE: MS) Mike Wilson who is on the side of pressured earnings, as a result of higher labor and material costs.

“Higher rates and a stronger USD have led to multiple compression, a process that remains unfinished, in our view,” he said in a note featured by The Market Ear. “Whether the final chapter of the mid-cycle transition ends with a 10% or 20% correction in the S&P 500 will be determined by how much earnings growth decelerates or has to outright decline (i.e., the Ice). We are gaining confidence in a sharper deceleration but the timing is more uncertain.”

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,346.75 HVNode invalidates Monday’s spike lower and puts in play the $4,363.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the $4,363.25 HVNode could reach as high as the $4,381.25 LVNode and $4,415.00 VPOC, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,346.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,330.25 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as the $4,299.00 VPOC and $4,278.00 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s real-time key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Please note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:30 AM ET.

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

News And Analysis

JPMorgan’s Kolanovic says stocks can handle $130 oil.

Chinese developers are faced with cuts to credit ratings.

Federal Reserve will wimp out on hikes despite inflation.

Evergrande skips 3rd round of bond coupon payments.

More clarity on inflation doesn’t mean the news is good.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For October 5, 2021

Editor’s Note: Sorry for the delay, everyone. I’m back in action, today, after traveling!

Market Commentary

Equity index futures trade higher with yields and the dollar. Commodities were mixed.

  • Positioning: Some risks weigh to the upside.
  • Ahead is data on the trade deficit, PMI, ISM.
  • Fundamental narratives are reducing clarity.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures sideways to higher overnight alongside narratives surrounding a taper to Federal Reserve asset purchases and debt ceiling complications.

Ahead is data on the trade deficit (8:30 AM ET), Markit services PMI (9:45 AM ET), and ISM services index (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 7:50 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 7:50 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during the prior day’s regular trade, on weak intraday breadth and divergent market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by a liquidation into the bulk of last Friday’s value, the area where about 70% of the volume took place. 

In the process, participants left a letter b-shaped profile which suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location; Friday’s advance away from the value area, on a taper of volume, left poor structure – lacking commitment – that gave during Monday’s move lower alongside fundamental drivers, putting in play the S&P 500’s October 1 $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL).

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade or balance (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit).

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a traditionally volatile October, as well as narratives surrounding a taper to Federal Reserve asset purchases and debt ceiling complications.

These themes are supportive of fear and uncertainty.

To elaborate, on one hand, according to Bloomberg, “the bond market thinks the Fed is going to make a hawkish mistake, and stamp out the life in the economy when previously there had been a belief that the Fed would be easy and let inflation move higher.”

On the other hand, in reference to default on a failure to raise or suspend the debt limit, “The consensus (from clients to whom we speak) is that it just will not happen,” Barclays Plc (NYCE: BCS) analysts explained. “But political schisms in Congress are stronger than they have been in a long time and battle lines more hardened.”

In addition, according to The Market Ear, Morgan Stanley’s (NYSE: MS) Mike Wilson sees the inability of companies to pass on pricing, margin risk related to higher wages, and a reversion to trend in goods consumption, coupled with near term risks on supply chain issues, weighing earnings into early next year.

“In short, higher real rates should mean lower equity prices. Secondarily, they may also mean value over growth even as the overall equity market goes lower. This makes for a doubly difficult investment environment given how most investors are positioned,” Wilson said in a discussion that also touched on a fraying in the buy-the-dip psychology

In opposition, JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) sales believe liquidity will remain ample while a capital return and consumer balance sheet health make the recent dip a buy.

Graphic: Morgan Stanley unpacks fraying of buy-the-dip psychology, visually, via The Market Ear.

In terms of positioning, there is more risk to the upside than the downside; indices are best positioned for a vicious rebound as near-term downside discovery has likely reached a limit.

Moreover, for today, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,285.75 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,332.25 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,363.25 HVNode and $4,410.25 LVNode, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,285.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,260.00 overnight low (ONL). Initiative trade beyond the ONL could reach as low as the $4,233.00 VPOC and $4,202.25 gap zone, or lower.

Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 7:50 AM ET.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

News And Analysis

Stagflation fear is having a British renaissance.

Global energy crisis is first of many in transition.

Buy the dip has failed. Here’s what you do next.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For August 23, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index and commodity futures trade higher overnight. Yields and VIX are higher, too.

  • Post-FOMC minutes recovery continues.
  • Ahead: CFNAI, Markit PMI, home sales.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned higher, continuing their recovery from last week’s liquidation that intensified after the release of Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) minutes. Leading the overnight price rise is the Russell 2000, a laggard in recent trade.

Ahead is data on the Chicago Fed National Activity Index (8:30 AM ET), Markit manufacturing and services PMI (9:45 AM ET), as well as existing home sales (10:00 AM ET). 

Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. See here for more on the Dark Pool Index (DPI) and Gamma (GEX). A higher DPI approximation is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX approximation, the more volatility. SHIFT data used for options activity approximation. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if green and more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index from 0-100.

What To Expect: As of 6:20 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open just outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Adding, during Friday’s regular trade, on stronger intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best-case outcome occurred, evidenced by trade above the spike base a few ticks below the $4,422.75 balance area high (BAH). This is significant because the post-FOMC minutes liquidation has been negated.

Gap Scenarios In Play: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of – most importantly – the Federal Reserve’s intent to taper asset purchases. This theme’s implications on price are contradictory; to elaborate, unemployment is falling rapidly, signaling to the Fed the need to reduce support.

“Bottom line, the critical element is inflation expectations,” former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke says. “As long as they stay in the vicinity of 2%, the Fed’s strategy will achieve its goals. If inflation expectations were to move significantly higher, the Fed would be forced to tighten more quickly and probably slow the economy more than they would like.”

Ultimately, “[r]ising interest rates could be the kryptonite to the bubble in long-duration assets,” Rich Bernstein of Richard Bernstein Associates adds.

Moreover, for today, given expectations of heightened volatility and responsive trade into the Jackson Hole Economic Policy Symposium August 26-28, 2021, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

Responsive Buying (Selling): Buying (selling) in response to prices below (above) an area of recent price acceptance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,437.75 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,463.75 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,476.50 overnight high (ONH) and $4,511.50 Fibonacci extension.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,437.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,427.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $4,415.75 LVNode and $4,393.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC).

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 6:20 AM ET.

News And Analysis

Jay Powell’s policy revolution was blindsided.

EM central banks’ responses reflect recovery.

The pace of recovery critical to debt reduction.

China adds to list of steel giants with merger.

ECB rate hike bets losing out to dim inflation.

Activity in Japan’s services sector is shrinking.

Harris looks to assure U.S. allies over chaos.

The European services sector outperforming.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Weekly Brief For August 22, 2021

Market Commentary

Equity index futures recover after last week’s liquidation.

  • Unpacking the inclination to taper.
  • Ahead: Busy week. Jackson Hole.

What Happened: The S&P 500, Nasdaq 100, and Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered more than 50% of last week’s liquidation. The Russell 2000 remains a laggard, trading weak below the halfway point of a multi-month consolidation.

Ahead is data on the Markit manufacturing and services PMI (Monday), existing-home sales (Monday), new home sales (Tuesday), durable goods orders (Wednesday), nondefense capital goods orders (Wednesday), jobless claims (Thursday), GDP revision (Thursday), personal income (Friday), consumer spending (Friday), core PCE price index (Friday), trade in goods (Friday), as well University of Michigan consumer sentiment (Friday). 

Also, the Jackson Hole Economic Policy Symposium starts Thursday.

Graphic updated 12:30 PM ET Sunday. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. See here for more on the Dark Pool Index (DPI) and Gamma (GEX). A higher DPI approximation is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX approximation, the more volatility. SHIFT data used for options activity approximation. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if green and more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index from 0-100.

What To Expect: During the prior week’s trade, on weak intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by a liquidation that repaired poor profile structures as low as the S&P 500’s $4,353.00 point of control (POC).

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Then, during Friday’s session, a p-shaped profile structure (which denotes short covering) took back the spike base a few ticks below the $4,422.75 balance area high (BAH) – a prior break from value – negating the post-Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) minutes liquidation.

Further, the aforementioned trade is happening in the context of moderating growth, peak long equity positioning, breadth divergences, a resurgence in COVID-19, geopolitical tensions, and an inclination to taper stimulus.

The implications of these themes on price are contradictory; to elaborate, as measures of macro expectations rolled over, in line with companies’ profit expectations, Treasury yields declined, triggering a rotation back into high growth equities.

Graphic: As created by Bank of America Corporation (NYSE: BAC) and shared by Bloomberg, the proportion of fund managers expecting a stronger economy tumbles while the number who are overweight in equities has barely moved.

This comes at the same time a strong July jobs report helped the Federal Reserve (Fed) move toward a consensus on tapering. Given the Fed’s enormous share of the Treasury market, fear of downside equity volatility is apparent; a shift higher in the VIX futures terms structure denotes demand for protection into and through the Jackson Hole Economic Policy Symposium August 26-28, 2021.

“The Fed has fostered a broad range of bubbles because their massive liquidity injections have been trapped in the financial economy,” Rich Bernstein of Richard Bernstein Associates said in a summary quoted by Bloomberg. “As with any cornered market, there are limited buyers and prices fall as the “cornerer” sells. Accordingly, bond prices seem likely to fall (interest rates rise) [as the] Fed reduces its cornered positions. Rising interest rates could be the kryptonite to the bubble in long-duration assets (long-term bonds, technology, innovation, disruption, bitcoin, etc.).”

Obviously, tapering may have major repercussions. However, to balance our expectations, looking back to 2014, when the Fed was scaling back bond purchases, the S&P 500 rose over 10% and rates fell after spiking initially. 

Graphic: Ally Financial Inc-owned (NYSE: ALLY) Ally Invest unpacks 2014 taper of Federal Reserve bond buying.

Ally Invest’s chief investment strategist Lindsey Bell concludes: “Conditions may not be perfect, but they could be strong enough to move from a wheelchair to some heavy-duty crutches, especially if it means keeping overheating symptoms like inflation at bay.”

Regardless, major risks remain given the growth of derivatives and the potential for offsides positioning. Even the slightest reduction in the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet – the removal of liquidity – may prompt a cascading reaction that exacerbates underlying price movements.

As Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan once told me for a Benzinga article: “It’s not a coincidence that the mid-February to mid-March 2020 downturn literally started the day after February expiration and ended the day of March quarterly expiration. These derivatives are incredibly embedded in how the tail reacts and there’s not enough liquidity, given the leverage, if the Fed were to taper.”

Moreover, for next week, given expectations of heightened volatility, participants may make use of the following frameworks.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,437.75 high volume area (HVNode) pivot puts in play the $4,463.75 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,476.50 overnight high (ONH) and $4,511.50 Fibonacci extension, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,437.75 HVNode puts in play the $4,415.75 LVNode. Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as low as $4,393.75 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) and $4,365.25 LVNode, or lower. 

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures updated 12:30 PM ET Sunday.

News And Analysis

Moody’s discusses taper – maybe this year, maybe not.

Single-family home construction the highest since 2007.

Fannie Mae says COVID-19 surge won’t impact growth. 

Goldman Sachs cut its U.S. growth forecast on the virus.

APAC corporate rating recovery may stall as cases rise.

Wall Street is just as baffled about markets as last year.

Canadian inflation has risen to 3.7%, troubling Trudeau. 

Powell second term approval boosted by Yellen backing.

A gaping 10-year bond call reveals growth uncertainties.

Michael Burry of ‘Big Short’ bet against ARK Invest ETF.

Outcry rises after White House looks to quell gas prices.

Big risks and trends facing banks globally and regionally.

Could a Western U.S. drought threaten municipal credit.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. 

Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For July 27, 2021

Market Commentary

Led by the Russell 2000, U.S. equity index futures explored lower overnight.

  • Risk-off everything China-related.
  • Ahead: Data dump and earnings.
  • S&P stuck in range, VWAP pinch.

What Happened: U.S. stock index futures auctioned sideways to lower as equity weakness in China deepened. Chinese government bonds and the yuan fell also, alongside fears that U.S. funds are selling Hong Kong and China assets aggressively.

In light of the volatility, Crescat Capital portfolio manager Otavio Costa tweeted: “A yuan devaluation is one of the main deflationary risks today. I know you heard this over and over again… but something is indeed unraveling. Chinese banks and ADRs are in big trouble. PBOC will be forced to act.”

A devaluation is indeed something to fear. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) roiled global equity markets after its 2015 yuan devaluation.

In addition to this context, ahead, participants will receive data on durable and nondefense capital good orders, the S&P Case-Shiller home price index, consumer confidence, housing vacancies, as well as Apple Inc (NASDAQ: AAPL), Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT), and Alphabet Inc (NASDAQ: GOOGL) earnings.

Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. See here for more on the Dark Pool Index and Gamma. A positive Dark Pool Index reading is bullish. At the same time, the higher (lower) the gamma, the less (more) volatility. SHIFT Search data used for options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if green and more (less) positive then more (less) was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s Advance/Decline indicator.

What To Expect: As of 6:40 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM EST) in the S&P 500 will likely open inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

After establishing a new high – $4,416.75 – overnight, weakness in China spilled over; U.S. equity index futures, led by the Russell 2000, traded lower in conjunction with yields, a boost to the tech- and growth-heavy Nasdaq 100.

Rates: Low rates have to potential to increase the present value of future earnings making stocks, especially those that are high growth, more attractive. To note, inflation and rates move inversely to each other. Low rates stimulate demand for loans (i.e., borrowing money is more attractive). In conjunction with the rapid recovery, lower rates may solicit hawkish commentary as policymakers look to inhibit inflation.

To note, Monday’s trade happened on positive, albeit weak breadth, similar to Friday’s session. At the same time, a Volume Weighted Average Price pinch developed.

Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP): A metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs. ​​

Look to buy above a flat/rising VWAP pinch. Sell below a flat/declining VWAP pinch.

All that said, similar to Monday, a key thing to watch for is an auction failure and subsequent liquidation break, confirmed by trade below the $4,372.50 regular trade low (RTH Low).

Liquidation Breaks: The profile shape suggests participants were “too” long and had poor location.

Moreover, for today, participants can trade from the following frameworks. 

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,398.75 high volume area (HVNode) pivot puts in play the $4,408.75 low volume area (LVNode). Initiative trade beyond the LVNode could reach as high as the $4,416.75 overnight high (ONH) and $4,428.25 Fibonacci extension.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,398.75 HVNode pivot puts in play the $4,390.50 minimal excess low. Initiative trade beyond the $4,390.50 low could reach as low as the $4,374.25 HVNode and $4,353.00 untested Point of Control (VPOC).

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on past areas of high volume. Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure (identified as a low volume area which denotes directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test). 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume, then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to areas of high volume for favorable entry or exit.

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Graphic updated 6:40 AM ET.

News And Analysis

China’s yuan, bonds tank amid fears of foreign selling.

U.S. infrastructure talks are encountering some snags.

Bitcoin steady below $40,000 on Amazon speculation.

Hypothetical look at 35 years of SPX option strategies.

The Federal Reserve meeting starts today. Watch this.

What People Are Saying

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets. Additionally, Capelj is a finance and technology reporter. Some of his biggest works include interviews with leaders such as John Chambers, founder and CEO, JC2 Ventures, Kevin O’Leary, businessman and Shark Tank host, Catherine Wood, CEO and CIO, ARK Invest, among others.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.