Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 19, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures diverged as the S&P 500 attempted a breakout, failed, and rotated back into range, leaving some signs of excess (i.e., a proper end to auction) on the composite volume profile. Learn about the profile.

This comes ahead of a weighty options expiration that ought to resolve this market of the dynamics that promoted sideways trade over the past couple of weeks. Attention, after today, shifts to weakening breadth, seasonality, emerging fundamental nuances, and the like, as a result.

Ahead is some Fed-speak and no major economic releases. 

Graphic updated 6:15 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Yesterday, on nonparticipatory intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred; the S&P 500, after liquidating against a divergent volume delta (i.e., a metric that may reveal participants’ commitment to buying and selling as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) was responsively bought at its lows.

The low-of-day coincided with the $4,674.25 micro-composite point of control, the place at which two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions, and the volume-weighted average price (i.e., the place at which liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell) anchored from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) event, weeks ago. 

The aforementioned activity left behind a double-distribution profile structure; participants initiated from one area of acceptance to another, closing just beyond what analysis provider SpotGamma sees is the options strike with the highest Absolute Gamma.

As discussed day after day, leading up to today’s monthly options expiration (OPEX), this cluster of options positioning was to restrain (i.e., make it difficult for) directional resolve.

The reason is, as OPEX nears and participants concentrate their activity on shorter-dated expiries (such as the one rolling off today), there’s an increased share who are willing to bet the market won’t move higher. In expressing this bet, participants opt to sell-to-open call exposure, for instance, leaving the counterparty/dealer warehousing exposure to positive options gamma. 

As this trend continues (and time to expiry narrows), dealers’ exposure to positive options gamma rises. In offsetting this risk, they sell to open (buy-to-open) the underlying as price rises (declines). This responsive buying and selling are what causes the market to balance (i.e., trade sideways) in a tight range. It ought to end after OPEX, as that options exposure rolls off

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance and not ready to break).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of dynamics I touched on in weeks prior, as well as yesterday’s commentary

This is, specifically, the bond market’s pricing of risk.

According to Bloomberg, based on an “erratic … handling [of] large transfers of risk,” as evidenced by the Merrill Lynch Option Volatility Estimate (INDEX: MOVE), the bond market’s pricing of risk, so to speak, has diverged from the pricing of equity market risk, via the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX).

Graphic: “The ICE BofA MOVE Index, which measures implied volatility for Treasuries, is close to the steepest level since April 2020,” via Bloomberg.

That said, fear in one market tends to feed into the fear of another; regardless of the cause, equity and bond market participants are not on the same page.

What is the fear all about? Well, at its core, the fear coincides with “broad uncertainty about the direction of the economy and monetary policy amid surging prices, labor shortages and yields that are holding well below the rate of inflation,” according to Bloomberg.

As asked, yesterday, in combating high inflation, policymakers ought to raise rates, right? 

That’s precisely what economists at institutions like JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE: JPM) believe may happen as soon as next September, earlier than once forecasted.

Rising rates, among other factors, have the potential to decrease the present value of future earnings, thereby making stocks, especially those that are high growth, less attractive to own.

As the market is a forward-looking mechanism, the implications of this seem staggering. 

Prevailing monetary frameworks and max liquidity promoted a large divergence in price from fundamentals. The growth of passive investing – the effect of increased moneyness among nonmonetary assets – and derivatives trading imply a lot of left-tail risks.

As Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan once told me: “There’s this constant structural positioning that naturally drives markets higher as long as volatility is compressed,” or there is supply.

“At the end of the day, though, the higher you go, the further off the ground you are and the more tail risk.”

Eventually, fear on the part of bond market participants may feed into equity market positioning.

In rounding out this section, I, again, want to mention the pinning in the broad market, as well as the performance of underlying constituents. If you’ve paid much of any attention, there is some bloodshed going on; breadth is divergent and the indices are sideways to higher, basically.

Graphic: Internally, the market is weak. Externally, via price, the market seems strong. 

The concern is that after OPEX, the absence of supportive vanna and charm flows (defined below), for which we can attribute some of the trends in extended day outperformance, alongside that sticky gamma hedging, so to speak, frees the market for directional resolve. 

Whether or not that resolve is up or down, we know that (as SpotGamma talks more about), participants are underexposed to downside protection. Should volatility pick up, these participants are likely to reach for that protection forcing dealers to reflexively hedge in a destabilizing manner. 

As volatility rises and customers demand out-of-the-money put protection, counterparties are to hedge by selling into weakness. The conditions worsen when much of the activity is in shorter-dated tenors where options gamma is more punchy if we will.

Pictured: SqueezeMetrics highlights implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. The left orange marker is reflective of a basic reaction to call-buying (as observed during the rise of meme stocks). The right orange marker reflects a reaction to put-buying (as observed during the COVID-19 sell-off).

Expectations: As of 6:15 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the lower part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Failure: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) nearly occurred on a higher time frame.

In monitoring for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the balance area, we saw an overnight rejection (i.e., return inside of balance). This portends a move to the opposite end of the balance. 

Given OPEX, though, we ought to give more weight to continued balance (i.e., sideways trade).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,692.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,723.50 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,735.25 and $4,765.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,692.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as low as the $4,647.25 HVNode and $4,619.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

Options: If an option buyer was short (long) stock, he or she would buy a call (put) to hedge upside (downside) exposure. Option buyers can also use options as an efficient way to gain directional exposure.

VPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure. 

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 18, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity indices auctioned sideways to higher as the bellwether S&P 500 continues to encounter difficulty in overcoming the forces associated with the large derivatives expiry, Friday.

One headline worth mentioning concerns JPMorgan Chase & Co’s (NYSE: JPM) prediction the Federal Reserve (Fed) will raise interest rates next September, earlier than expected. 

Ahead is data on jobless claims and the Philadelphia Fed manufacturing index (8:30 AM ET), leading economic indicators (10:00 AM ET), as well as Fed-speak scattered throughout the day.

Graphic updated 6:00 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On lackluster intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by a Gaussian profile, as well as the balance and overlap of value in the S&P 500.

This activity, which denotes participants positioning themselves for directional resolve, is adding structure, a technically stabilizing dynamic, in short.

Graphic: Lackluster delta (i.e., non-committed buying/selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Amidst a rather large monthly options expiration (OPEX) this Friday, participants are having difficulty directionally resolving the S&P 500.

This is most visible by the S&P 500’s failure to move away from the $4,695.25 high volume area (HVNode), a level at which there is concentrated participation in the options market. 

As noted before, according to SqueezeMetrics, this level ought to be a magnet given hedging.

“As realized volatility falls from its peak around a year ago, more sold SPX options cluster at strikes nearer to spot. And as implied volatility falls with it, the gamma of those options increases. More dealer long gamma means more liquidity. More liquidity means less movement.”

Moreover, yesterday, there was a note about the market’s reaction to what SpotGamma labels a Call Wall, the strike with the largest net positive gamma in the underlying stock. 

This Call Wall is a reflection of participants’ commitment to higher prices. Should that level continue to move up, then that confirms a willingness to do business, higher, so to speak. 

Since participants were able to roll their exposure to positive options gamma, higher in price and out in time, dealers have to hedge. This maintains that positive (stabilizing) dealer flow we talk so often about, which has bolstered this equity bull market.

Graphic: Via SHIFT, we see participants rolling call exposures to strikes out in time.

That leads us to a dynamic I briefly mentioned last week. After being brought to my attention again, yesterday, there is obviously more to unpack there. However, in keeping it short, I’ll hit on the basics.

The bond market’s pricing of risk, according to Bloomberg, based on an “erratic … handling [of] large transfers of risk” – as evidenced by the Merrill Lynch Option Volatility Estimate (INDEX: MOVE) – has diverged from the pricing of equity market risk via the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX).

Fear in one market tends to feed into the fear in another; regardless of the cause, equity and bond market participants are not on the same page.

What does that mean?

At its core, the fear is in tandem with “broad uncertainty about the direction of the economy and monetary policy amid surging prices, labor shortages and yields that are holding well below the rate of inflation,” according to Bloomberg.

In combating high inflation, policymakers ought to raise rates, right? 

Well, that’s at least what economists at institutions like JPM believe may happen as soon as next September, earlier than once forecasted.

Rising rates, among other factors, have the potential to decrease the present value of future earnings, thereby making stocks, especially those that are high growth, less attractive to own.

As the market is a forward-looking mechanism, the implications of this seem staggering. 

Prevailing monetary frameworks and max liquidity promoted a large divergence in price from fundamentals. The growth of passive investing – the effect of increased moneyness among nonmonetary assets – and derivatives trading imply a lot of left-tail risks.

As Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan once told me: “There’s this constant structural positioning that naturally drives markets higher as long as volatility is compressed,” or there is supply.

“At the end of the day, though, the higher you go, the further off the ground you are and the more tail risk.”

Eventually, fear on the part of bond market participants may feed into equity market positioning.

Graphic: Via The Market Ear, in spite of earnings growth, buybacks, and seasonality, among other factors, Bank of America Corp (NYSE: BAC) sees large tech outflows. Fade as big tech starts to look relatively cheap?

Expectations: As of 6:00 AM ET, Thursday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, just outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,695.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,711.75 regular-trade high (RTH High). Initiative trade beyond the RTH High could reach as high as the $4,735.25 and $4,765.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,695.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as low as the $4,647.25 HVNode and $4,619.00 untested point of control (VPOC), or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

VPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Significance Of Prior ATHs, ATLs: Prices often encounter resistance (support) at prior highs (lows) due to the supply (demand) of old business. These areas take time to resolve. Breaking and establishing value (i.e., trading more than 30-minutes beyond this level) portends continuation.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 17, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were divergent. This comes as there were no significant news catalysts and there is a weighty CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) expiration today.

Ahead is data on building permits and housing starts (8:30 AM ET). Numerous Federal Reserve members are scheduled to speak today.

Graphic updated 5:45 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

When analyzing the composite (i.e., overnight and day time frame) volume profile, yesterday’s double distribution suggests participants initiated from one area of acceptance to another.

Amidst divergent intraday breadth and market liquidity metrics, the S&P 500 came back into range and participants defended the $4,695.25 high volume area (HVNode). This level corresponds with what options analysis provider SpotGamma says is a Call Wall.

Given an implosion in volatility over the past sessions, the Call Wall is a near-term magnet due to associated hedging.

“As realized volatility falls from its peak around a year ago, more sold SPX options cluster at strikes nearer to spot. And as implied volatility falls with it, the gamma of those options increases. More dealer long gamma means more liquidity. More liquidity means less movement.” – SqueezeMetrics

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of what Goldman Sachs Group Inc’s (NYSE: GS) CEO David Solomon says is a market environment dominated by greed. 

“[T]here have been periods of time when greed has far outpaced fear — we are in one of those periods,” he said. “My experience says those periods aren’t long-lived. Something will rebalance it and bring a little bit more perspective.”

This comes as markets surge alongside historic amounts of stimulus, improvements in fundamentals (i.e., earnings), supply chain demand/supply imbalances, inflation, and more. 

Further, as stated over the past few commentaries, economic structures are different and we are not in the 1970s. That said, there are a few big dynamics that are of concern.

The first is that we see supply pressures beginning to ease as at-home inventory build-ups are expected to take away from consumption during the holidays (for which businesses are scrambling to stock). Ultimately, this may pressure commodity inflation.

Graphic: Via The Market Ear, Bridgewater shows supply returning to pre-COVID-19 levels as demand explodes, “creating an imbalance of a magnitude that we haven’t seen since the 1970s. What happened in the ’70s truly was a supply shock: supply collapsed, and demand stayed relatively steady. Today, demand is surging, and supply is also growing, but it just can’t keep up with demand.”

The second is this concept of the velocity of money slowing as participants extend moneyness to nonmonetary assets. This is primarily because of monetary policies and an environment of debt and leverage that ultimately cuts into asset price volatility. Overall, this dynamic adds to the prevailing risks of carry when volatility does rise and the demand for money pushes deflation.

Solomon adds: “Chances are interest rates will move up, and if interest rates move up that in of itself will take some of the exuberance out of certain markets.”

With prevailing monetary frameworks and max liquidity promoting a divergence in price from fundamentals, as well as the growth of passive investing and derivatives trading, we ought to have some concern for pending monetary evolution, so to speak. 

As Kai Volatility’s Cem Karsan once told me: “A lot of the processes that enforce these bubbles are embedded in the volatility market.”

“There’s this constant structural positioning that naturally drives markets higher as long as volatility is compressed, or there’s a supply of volatility.” However, “At the end of the day, though, the higher you go, the further off the ground you are and the more tail risk.”

Note: This structural positioning in the S&P 500 can be construed as customer long equity, long put, short call. This sort of positioning tends to leave the market in long-gamma whereby dealers buy into weakness and sell into strength. Amidst the decay in protection, dealers are to unwind their hedges (supply less liquidity), and this is a force that bolsters market price rises.

Even the slightest reduction in liquidity has the potential to prick the bubble, prompting a reaction that exacerbates underlying price movements; the response by customers, as well as the dynamics of dealers’ risk exposure to direction and volatility, ought to cut into liquidity and aid in an unraveling.

“It’s not a coincidence that the mid-February to mid-March 2020 downturn literally started the day after February expiration and ended the day of March quarterly expiration. These derivatives are incredibly embedded in how the tail reacts and there’s not enough liquidity, given the leverage, if the Fed were to taper.”

Case in point, the market’s reaction to prices near SpotGamma’s Call Wall. If participants were unable to roll that exposure to positive options gamma higher in price and out in time, dealers would not have to hedge. This cuts into dealers’ need to unwind hedges to customers’ options positions. This removes one positive (stabilizing) flow that has bolstered this equity bull market.
Graphic: Via SHIFT, we see participants potentially rolling call exposures.

We have seasonally-aligned inflows and earnings growth, among other things, bolstering the most recent rally to new highs. With this week’s implosion in implied volatility most noticeable at the front end of the VIX futures term structure, given the decay in shorter-dated customer protection, it may be an opportune time to hedge.

As The Market Ear stated yesterday, “Playing the term structure (i.e., [buying the] short end of the curve vs [selling] the longer part of the term structure curve) is becoming a rather cheap way to hedge some risks here.”

Expectations: As of 5:45 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) may occur.

We shall monitor for acceptance (i.e., more than 1-hour of trade) outside of the prior day’s balance area (i.e., the price levels at which 70% of the day’s volume occurred). Rejection (i.e., return inside of balance) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,695.25 high volume area (HVNode) puts in play the $4,711.75 regular-trade high (RTH High). Initiative trade beyond the RTH High could reach as high as the $4,735.25 and $4,765.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,695.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as low as the $4,647.25 HVNode and $4,619.00 untested point of control (VPOC), or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Note that the S&P 500 is pinning at $4,695.25 amid what looks to be a cave-fill (i.e., the widening of the area deemed favorable to transact in by an increased share of participants). Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure.

Significance Of Prior ATHs, ATLs: Prices often encounter resistance (support) at prior highs (lows) due to the supply (demand) of old business. These areas take time to resolve. Breaking and establishing value (i.e., trading more than 30-minutes beyond this level) portends continuation.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 16, 2021

What Happened

Equity index futures auctioned sideways alongside no new fundamental catalysts.

Ahead is data on retail sales and import prices (8:30 AM ET), industrial production and capacity utilization (9:15 AM ET), the NAHB home builders’ index, and business inventories (10:00 AM ET), as well as Fed-speak at 12:00 and 2:30 PM ET.

Graphic updated 6:10 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On minimally divergent intraday breadth and unsupportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by the balance and overlap of value areas in the S&P 500.

This activity, which marks a potential willingness to continue balance, is adding strength to poor structure, a dynamic that is helping clear the market of technical instabilities.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: According to Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS), the S&P 500 ought to be weighed down by slower earnings growth and rising yields. The firm’s chief U.S. equity strategist explains that risk and reward for broad indices look unattractive.

“[W]e think 2022 will finally bring the multiple compression we incorrectly forecasted for 2H 2021. Our 12-month target P/E of 18x is 15% below current levels but in line with the 5-year average and the top quintile for the past 30 years.” 

“The risk of de-rating has been deferred, not avoided, and makes our 12-month S&P 500 Bear/Base/Bull targets of 3900/4400/5000 unexciting.”

This comes alongside expectations that inflation – a product of strong demand – is likely to worsen but not disrupt deflationary trends, such as increased moneyness of nonmonetary assets, innovation, and the like. 

Graphic: Inflation ought to worsen before it cools, via The Market Ear.

Moreover, in terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was a touch higher, while demand came in across the front area of the VIX futures term structure. 

Obviously, the tone has changed a bit since last week; customer demand and exposure to very short-dated put protection declined. This was most noticeable in how the VIX term structure behaved over the past sessions. After shifting outward (mostly) in the front, a sign of demand for short-dated protection, the curve shifted back down, late last week.

So, while the initial pop (and hedging on the part of those dealers that warehouse customer options orders) was destabilizing, the term structure slid back into line and the removal of that short-dated protection had the effect of leading dealers to buy back short stock/futures hedges.

This stabilized the market. 

Thereafter, the market drifted back up to the level at which positive options gamma is highest, ahead of a fast-approaching monthly options expiration (OPEX). Into OPEX, dealers’ positive exposure to the risks of price movement, based on predominant positioning in the S&P, ought to increase. In hedging this exposure, dealers ought to supply the market with liquidity (i.e., sell stock/futures) which ought to dampen upside volatility.

So, presently, we’re in a bind and things ought to loosen after OPEX, allowing fundamental catalysts to play a bigger role in price discovery.

A way to play this dynamic is to structure some sort of options spread that applies the proceeds from a short option (which capitalizes on pinning and the rapid decay of soon-to-expire options) toward a long option further out in time. Learn about basic Calendar Spreads or see below.
Graphic: The risk profile of a long put calendar spread, via Fidelity.

Expectations: As of 6:00 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the lower part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,674.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) puts in play the $4,695.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as high as the $4,711.75 all-time high and $4,735.25 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,674.25 MCPOC puts in play the $4,647.25 HVNode. Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,619.00 VPOC and $4,590.00 balance area boundary (BAH), or lower.

As an aside, participants reclaimed the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored from the all-time high and recent Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting.

This is a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Further, given that this development suggests the average buyer, since the all-time high, is in a winning position, who does this dynamic embolden? The buyer or seller?

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

A Quick Guide To Options

Options offer an efficient way to gain directional exposure. 

If an option buyer was short (long) stock, he or she could buy a call (put) to hedge upside (downside) exposure. Additionally, one can spread, or buy (+) and sell (-) options together, strategically.

Commonly discussed spreads include credit, debit, ratio, back, and calendar.

  • Credit: Sell -1 option closer to the money. Buy +1 option farther out of the money.
  • Debit: Buy +1 option closer to the money. Sell -1 option farther out of the money.
  • Ratio: Buy +1 option closer to the money. Sell -2 options farther out of the money. 
  • Back: Sell -1 option closer to the money. Buy +2 options farther out of the money.
  • Calendar: Sell -1 option. Buy +1 option farther out in time, at the same strike.

Typically, if bullish (bearish), sell at-the-money put (call) credit spread and/or buy a call (put) debit/ratio spread structured around target price. Alternatively, if the expected directional move is great (small), opt for a back spread (calendar spread). Also, if credit spread, capture 50-75% of the premium collected. If debit spread, capture 2-300% of the premium paid.

Be cognizant of risk exposure to direction (delta), time (theta), and volatility (vega). 

  • Negative (positive) delta = synthetic short (long). 
  • Negative (positive) theta = time decay hurts (helps).
  • Negative (positive) vega = volatility hurts (helps).

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Significance Of Prior ATHs, ATLs: Prices often encounter resistance (support) at prior highs (lows) due to the supply (demand) of old business. These areas take time to resolve. Breaking and establishing value (i.e., trading more than 30-minutes beyond this level) portends continuation.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 10, 2021

What Happened

Equity index futures sideways, overnight, on powerful derivative market forces, alongside participants’ aims to base ahead of added clarity on the economic outlook.

Ahead is data on inflation and jobless claims (8:30 AM ET), wholesale inventories (10:00 AM ET), and the monthly budget statement (2:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 5:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

As evidenced by a b-shaped liquidation break profile distribution (i.e., morning drop on fast tempo, followed by sideways trade) there was likely selling by short-term momentum-driven participants who had poor location.

We are confident this may be the case given where the price is, relative to the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) announcement, last week; the average buyer, since then, is losing.

To note, given the context – lackluster breadth and market liquidity metrics – the failure to expand the range, markedly, suggests there was no new money selling.

This activity, which marks a potential willingness to clear stubborn inventory and break balance, is occurring in the face of poor structure down below, a dynamic that adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., non-committed selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Yesterday, I made an emphasis on some of the “high leverage and risk” short-term speculators’ record call buying and put selling posed on the equity market, at large.

That’s odd. Why? 

Well, into the near-vertical price rise of highly volatile stocks like Tesla Inc (NASDAQ: TSLA), customers (you and I) signed up, through the agency of counterparties, to add liquidity to the market, via options activity.

Graphic: Customers took on significant leverage in their purchase and sale of options, via SpotGamma.

So long as implied volatility remained bid (and stock prices go to the moon) – the effect of inadequate liquidity – counterparties were to exacerbate upside volatility in hedging their exposure to customer positioning. In other words, dealer short-gamma.

Note those participants that take the other side of options trades will hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. 

When dealers are short-gamma (e.g., Tesla), they buy into strength and sell into weakness, exacerbating volatility

When dealers are long-gamma (e.g., S&P 500), counterparties buy into weakness and sell into strength, calming volatility.

Enter shock – Elon Musk selling Tesla stock – alongside a decline in implied volatility, amidst a build of gamma at higher stock prices (which has the effect of dampening realized volatility), we saw the unthinkable happen; high-flying stocks (more so Tesla, which is a large S&P 500 index constituent) turned away from the moon and headed back to earth.

The implications of this were staggering; the bulk of customers’ short puts (long calls) quickly rose (declined) in value and traded in-the-money (out-of-the-money). 

As SpotGamma noted, yesterday, “[t]here was a serious dearth of liquidity to start today’s session,” and volatility rose, as a result, in compensating for that fact.

Now, if customer short put, counterparty long put. 

To hedge, counterparty ought to buy, right? Nope

As SqueezeMetrics explains, “Sold puts are, quite literally, a bunch of huge buy limit orders below the market, and then a bunch of liquidity-taking stop-losses further down.”

Graphic: SqueezeMetrics unpacks implications of short put options on the limit order book.

This is, to put it simply, due in part to short-term speculators lacking the wherewithal to stay in these margin-intensive positions; as price falls, put buying (covering of shorts, too) takes liquidity and destabilizes the market.

We’re starting to see this activity, in individual stocks, affect the S&P 500 complex, too

The CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, with demand coming in across the front area of the VIX futures term structure, mostly; both suggest a demand for hedges and a reduction in the flows (e.g., vanna) that support sideways to higher trade. 

Graphic: Demand for options hedges comes in at the front end of the term structure.

That has already been reflected by the trend of outperformance in the extended day. 

In other words, the front-running of increasingly impactful (and supportive) vanna and charm flows (both of which are tied to the hedging of options exposure), as a result of increased options activity (which, at least at this juncture, exposes customers to high leverage and risk), seems to be changing, slowly. 

We’re (likely) opening sideways to lower today. That’s a change, for once!

With expectations that there may be a front-running of the monthly (OPEX) options expiration (into which the forces that promote pining usually turn stronger with counterparties supplying more liquidity as their long gamma rises), a time when dealer gamma exposure is to decline, allowing for increased realized volatility (as a result of less liquidity), the added demand for hedges (as evidenced by the bid in volatility and VIX term structure shift), is of concern. 

Participants have been uber bullish, up until early this week. Should sentiment turn, and (1) those participants cover their levered, long delta exposure alongside (2) new money hedging, tempo ought to quicken; an abrupt liquidation could be in the cards.

Graphic: @pat_hennessy breaks down returns for the S&P 500, categorized by the week relative to OPEX. 

In light of seasonality, buybacks, and earnings surprises, the potential for a rally into the end of the year remains strong. As a result, we start to look for big picture references where we may see responsive buying. See the graphic below!

Expectations: As of 5:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance Scenarios: Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,680.25 overnight high (ONH) puts in play the $4,695.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC). Initiative trade beyond the MCPOC could reach as high as the $4,711.75 regular trade high and $4,722.00 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,680.25 ONH puts in play the $4,658.75 overnight low (ONL). Initiative trade beyond the ONL could reach as low as the $4,619.00 untested point of control (VPOC) and $4,590.00 balance area boundary, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Note the low-volume structure beneath current prices. There is the potential for a cave-fill to widen the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 9, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were divergent.

The Nasdaq-100 led while the Russell 2000, which broke out of massive range, recently, slowed its pace of price discovery, trading relatively weak.

Ahead is data on the PPI (8:30 AM ET) and real household debt (11:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:20 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On lackluster intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by the balance and overlap of value areas (i.e., where 70% of the prior day’s trade occurred, or +/- 1 standard deviation), at the current S&P 500 prices.

This activity, which marks a potential willingness to continue balance as participants seek new information to resolve on, is built on poor structure, a dynamic that adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a lot of big-picture dynamics such as the growth of derivatives exposure and tail risk, the heightened moneyness of nonmonetary assets, trends in seasonality, buybacks, earnings surprises, and more.

The implications of these themes on price are contradictory.

To elaborate, on one hand, seasonality, buybacks, and earnings surprises have bolstered (and will continue to bolster) the most recent price rise, since early October. 

Similarly, participants are seeing a trend of outperformance in the extended day, due in part to the front-running of increasingly impactful vanna and charm flows (both of which are tied to the hedging of options exposure), as a result of increased options activity (which, at least at this juncture, exposes customers to high leverage and risk). 

I say “high leverage and risk” as a result of short-term speculators’ record call buying and put selling over the past weeks.

As stated in a SpotGamma note, yesterday, “Should there be an adverse move, those short-term speculators are likely to cover (sell) their short put (long call) positions as they lack the wherewithal (capital) to maintain exposure.”

With exposure concentrated in shorter-dated expiries, the November 19 monthly options expiration (OPEX) is somewhat of a concern for us.

The reason being?

Presently, the S&P 500 is pinned near options strikes at which positive options gamma – delta sensitivity to underlying price – is highest. 

I note those participants that take the other side of options trades will hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. 

When dealers are short-gamma (e.g., Tesla), they buy into strength and sell into weakness, exacerbating volatility. 

When long-gamma, counterparties buy into weakness and sell into strength, calming volatility.

Coming into OPEX, the forces that promote pinning turn stronger; counterparties supply more liquidity as their long gamma becomes longer (i.e., rises), so to speak. 

As OPEX is essentially a reset (or reduction) in dealer gamma exposure, participants ought to see an increase in realized volatility as a lot of the exposure that warranted dealers’ supply of liquidity comes off the table, thus necessitating less liquidity

Less liquidity means more movement

More liquidity means less movement

Get it?

With short-term speculators taking on the risks that we’re seeing them take on, and the prospects of a front-running of post-OPEX volatility – given that, according to Pat Hennessy, “OPEX week returns peaked in 2016 and have trended lower since” – there is a potential that adverse moves force those that are off-sides cover (sell) their short put (long call) positions, thereby exacerbating near-term volatility.

We see recent options activity reflected in a sideways to higher CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) and shift up in the VIX futures term structure; both suggest a demand for hedges and a reduction in the flows (e.g., vanna) that support sideways to higher trade. 

“The moves have been large and the demand for upside in single stock land insatiable,” said Danny Kirsch of Cornerstone Macro LLC. “Single stock vols clearly feeding into the index.”

Expectations: As of 6:20 AM ET, Tuesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a balanced overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Market Is In Balance: Current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,692.25 micro composite point of control (MCPOC) puts in play the $4,722.00 Fibonacci. Initiative trade beyond $4,722.00 could reach as high as the $4,735.00 and $4,772.50 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,692.25 MCPOC puts in play the $4,674.75 visual low. Initiative trade beyond the visual low (likely paid attention to by short-term, technically driven market participants who seldom defend retests) could reach as low as the $4,663.00 untested point of control (VPOC) and $4,619.00 VPOC, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Notice Monday’s “Cave-Fill” or the act of increasing the area deemed favorable to transact at by participants. This is most obvious by observing where the bulk of Monday’s distribution sits, relative to the pocket of low-volume left behind Friday’s trade. This is a positive development. Learn about the profile.

Charts To Watch

Graphic: (NASDAQ: TSLA). (S~1108, R~1187 to 1195). S is for support. R is for resistance. Looking to buy/sell responsively. 
Graphic: (NYSE: CMG). (S~1680, R~1820). S is for support. R is for resistance. Looking to buy/sell responsively.
Graphic: (NYSE: SPY). (S~456, R~471). S is for support. R is for resistance. Looking to buy responsively.
Graphic: (NASDAQ: QQQ). (S~382, R~403). S is for support. R is for resistance. Looking to buy responsively.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

MCPOCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent over numerous day sessions. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

All You Need To Know For November 8, 2021

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways to higher alongside an absence in impactful fundamental developments and news catalysts.

Ahead, today, there are no major data releases scheduled.

In the following section, I unpack, in-depth, the fundamental and technical context shadowing recent trade. If you like what is said, consider sharing!
Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On supportive intraday breadth and lackluster market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by a gap and hold of newly discovered S&P 500 prices.

This activity, which marks a potential willingness to continue the trend, coincides with poor structure, a dynamic that adds to technical instability.

Graphic: Divergent delta (i.e., buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY). The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of interesting developments with respect to fiscal and monetary policy, as well as supply and demand imbalances.

To start, in regards to fiscal policy, ARK Invest’s Cathie Wood thinks that there will be no capital gains tax rate increases and an installment of a minimum corporate tax (about 15%). 

“I think that is one reason the market’s been rallying,” she said in an episode of In The Know

In sticking with Wood’s theses, why would the market be rallying if all that we (i.e., the market participants) see, in the news, is heavily focused around fears of inflation, so to speak? It wouldn’t; Wood feels that inflation is on its way out.

Major reasons? 

(1) Productivity increases will offset dented margins and therefore not lead to impactful price increases; (2) turmoil, with respect to China’s housing and financial sector, ought to depress commodity pricing further as “when China has caught a cold, commodity prices get pneumonia”; (3) at-home inventory build-ups may takeaway from consumption during the holidays (for which businesses are scrambling to increase inventories), and this ultimately should be reflected in commodity prices, given excess inventory; (4) disruptive innovation and declining cost curves.

“The markets are conflicting,” she explains. “You’ve got energy and financials at the top for the year, 54% and 35%, respectively. Those two sectors are associated with very strong boom time economies with a yield curve steepening, meaning long rates are rising faster than short rates.”

“That would be consistent with inflation, but the other two top-performing sectors are real estate and consumer discretionary, and those do not benefit from inflation. They benefit from inflation coming down and lower interest rates.”

The bond market, on the other hand, is in the lower inflation camp. At the same time, the dollar is going up alongside assets like bitcoin, often construed as an inflation hedge.

“Could this mean that the velocity of money is going down,” she asks. “Velocity of money has been coming down because people have been saving and putting money into assets.”

This dynamic is supported by disappointing GDP figures with growth coming mostly from inventories; “Real final sales were slightly negative. Could it be … that [millennials] would prefer not to spend on goods and services, but to invest?”

It seems that participants are increasingly extending moneyness to nonmonetary assets – given monetary policies and an environment of debt and leverage that ultimately cuts into asset price volatility – adding to the prevailing risks of carry when volatility does rise and the demand for money pushes deflation.

A great explainer on the growth of global carry is the book titled The Rise of Carry: The Dangerous Consequences of Volatility Suppression and the New Financial Order of Decaying Growth and Recurring Crisis.

“Ivy Zelman of Zelman Research came out this week. She made a fantastic call on the housing bubble and bust starting in 05-06, and she was right, just a little early. She is very concerned that the housing prices we’re seeing right now are not sustainable,” because of speculation, as well as iBuying and private equity participation. 

For instance, just last week, Zillow Group Inc (NASDAQ: Z), a major iBuyer, sought to raise liquidity, dumping properties en masse.

“This is unsustainable … and I’m wondering if even the housing market inflation is going to give way, here,” Wood added. 

That leads to the question: what effects will a taper and the eventual reduction in the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet – a removal of liquidity – have?

Thus far, given monetary frameworks and max liquidity, markets rallies have been enforced by some of the processes embedded within the volatility market

To quote Cem Karsan of Kai Volatility: “There’s this constant structural positioning that naturally drives markets higher as long as volatility is compressed, or there’s a supply of volatility.”

“As volatility is compressed, … the hedging vanna and charm flows, and whatnot will push the markets higher,” Karsan added in reference to options sliding down their term structure (vanna) and skew decaying (charm). Both dynamics have counterparties covering their hedges to the most dominant customer positioning in the market (i.e., short call, long put). 

With option volumes now comparable to stock volumes, related hedging flows can represent an increased share of volume in underlying stocks; “It’s not a coincidence that the mid-February to mid-March 2020 downturn literally started the day after February expiration and ended the day of March quarterly expiration. These derivatives are incredibly embedded in how the tail reacts and there’s not enough liquidity, given the leverage, if the Fed were to taper.”

Learn more about the implications of convexity, edge, and risk management, as well as Liquidity Cascades: The Coordinated Risk of Uncoordinated Market Participants.

Aside from a lot of these big picture dynamics – growing derivatives markets and tail risk, the heightened moneyness of nonmonetary assets, trends in seasonality, earnings surprises, and more – we have some more impactful near-term happenings to be aware of.

Graphic: “Whenever the market has been up 20%+ YTD through to October (like e.g. THIS YEAR), it has *always* had an up month in November (albeit with a n=8). Basically I would say it speaks to the momentum in the market, which despite the September stumble seems pretty much alive and well.” – Callum Thomas

The first is fragile positioning. The second is the monthly options expiration (OPEX). 

According to SqueezeMetrics analyses, “middling dark pool sentiment and middling gamma exposure [portends] … 1-month negative returns.”

Alongside that, according to data compiled and analyzed by Pat Hennessy, “2 weeks prior to OPEX (e.g., 7/30/21 to 8/6/21 in this late-cycle) [have] been extremely bullish,” while “OPEX week returns peaked in 2016 and have trended lower since.”

Graphic: @pat_hennessy breaks down returns for the S&P 500, categorized by the week relative to OPEX. 

This comes as investors marked the S&P 500 up to the $4,700.00 strike, at which positive gamma – delta sensitivity to underlying price – is highest. 

In referencing a note I wrote for SpotGamma, “as volatility continues to decline, the gamma of those options, which are now at the money, ought to increase, forcing counterparties to supply more liquidity.”

Ultimately, $4,700.00 ought to be a magnet (or resistance) into that aforementioned pre-OPEX weakness.

This is unless (1) volatility declines markedly, “a tailwind for the S&P complex as options slid[ing] down their term structure would cause dealers to continue covering their hedges in an asymmetric manner,” or (2) more capital is committed to options at higher strikes. 

Graphic: SpotGamma shows large positive gamma at the $4,700.00 strike. “Large options strikes are considered to be support or resistance zones. The change in gamma at various levels over time can shed light on how traders are viewing the market (i.e., adding calls is bullish, puts bearish).”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Market Is In Balance: Current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,674.75 visual low (likely paid attention to by short-term, technically driven market participants who seldom defend retests) puts in play the $4,711.75 regular trade high (RTH High). Initiative trade beyond the RTH High could reach as high as the $4,722.00 and $4,735.00 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,674.75 visual low puts in play the $4,663.00 untested point of control (VPOC). Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $4,619.00 VPOC and $4,590.00 balance area boundary (BAH), or lower.

As an aside, the $4,674.75 visual low corresponds with the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) anchored at last week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting. 

This is a metric highly regarded by chief investment officers, among other participants, for quality of trade. Additionally, liquidity algorithms are benchmarked and programmed to buy and sell around VWAPs.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Definitions

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Options Expiration (OPEX): Traditionally, option expiries mark an end to pinning (i.e, the theory that market makers and institutions short options move stocks to the point where the greatest dollar value of contracts will expire) and the reduction dealer gamma exposure. In recent history, this reset in dealer positioning has been front-run; prior, there was an increase in volatility after the removal of large options positions and associated hedging.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 5, 2021

Abstract

Equity index futures higher. Commodities were higher. Bonds mixed. Volatility compressed.

Ahead is a heavier day of economic releases, in the face of fundamental narratives and positioning metrics that may support intraday price stability.

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were marked up ahead of the House’s plan to vote on President Joe Biden’s economic package and infrastructure, as well as October jobs data.

Also, in the news, there were narratives surrounding China’s dollar surplus, a pandemic resurgence in Europe, Pfizer Inc’s (NYSE: PFE) development of a pill for COVID-19.

Ahead is data on payrolls, unemployment, and average hourly earnings (8:30 AM ET), as well as consumer credit (3:00 PM ET). I apologize as this is what I listed yesterday, mistakenly.

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Risk-On if expected /ES open is above the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

On weak intraday breadth and lackluster market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by balanced trade at newly discovered S&P 500 prices.

As also evidenced by the separation of value, overnight, the gap out of yesterday’s range marks a potential willingness to continue the uptrend.

To note, poor structure left behind prior initiative trade adds to technical instability, a dynamic mentioned in prior commentaries. Participants will likely look to check old value (i.e., revisit, repair, and strengthen) pockets of low-volume, feverishly, on any breakdown of trend.

Graphic: Flat delta (i.e., non-committed buying/selling as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offered favorable entry and exit).

Context: The aforementioned trade is happening in the context of a slowdown in economic growth, increased clarity on the Federal Reserve’s (Fed) intent to moderate stimulus, as well as the prospects of renewed fiscal support.

The implications of these narratives on price are contradictory.

To elaborate, supply chain disruptions slowed the pace of economic growth, while participants saw both the Fed’s decision to taper and keep rates unchanged, as well as the potential passage of President Biden’s economic plan, today, as near-term positives.

In terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was lower, while supply came in across the VIX futures term structure. That, alongside the long-gamma environment and increased demand for options above current prices (i.e., bets on the upside), points to increased odds of near-term equity market stability.

To quote options analysis and data provider SpotGamma, “​​the term structure of IV (this is how high the IV is for longer-dated options) remains elevated. That suggests near term options could have more ‘bleed’ which could keep the SPX market price tailwind intact.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Friday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the upper part of a positively skewed overnight inventory, outside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Gap Scenarios: Gaps ought to fill quickly. Should they not, that’s a signal of strength; do not fade. Leaving value behind on a gap-fill or failing to fill a gap (i.e., remaining outside of the prior session’s range) is a go-with indicator.

Auctioning and spending at least 1-hour of trade back in the prior range suggests a lack of conviction; in such a case, do not follow the direction of the most recent initiative activity.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,663.00 untested point of control (VPOC) puts in play the $4,684.25 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,705.25 and $4,725.50 Fibonacci, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,663.00 VPOC puts in play the $4,619.00 VPOC. Initiative trade beyond the VPOC could reach as low as the $4,590.00 balance boundary and $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode), or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

Charts To Watch

Graphic: (NASDAQ: AMZN). (S~3403, R~3580). S is for support. R is for resistance. I am seeking to initiate short-duration call structures against the 3580 gap fill and prior all-time high. Will initiate for credit or finance with put structures.
Graphic: (NASDAQ: FB). (S~326.45, R~336.90). S is for support. R is for resistance. If the stock was to maintain prices above 336.90, there is a potential change in tone. In such a case, I’m targeting Fibonacci retracements with call structures financed with credits on the put side.
Graphic: (NASDAQ: GOOGL). (S~2900, R~3113). S is for support. R is for resistance. I’m targeting prices between 3000 and 3100 with call structures for low cost or credit.
Graphic: (NYSE: SHOP). (S~1482, R~1650). S is for support. R is for resistance. Potential break of trend, move to an all-time high.
Graphic: (NYSE: IWM). (S~234.53, R~241.96, 251.41). S is for support. R is for resistance. Russell 2000 breaks out of balance. In my opinion, upon acceptance, there are potential opportunities for long trades.

Other charts I’m watching include BABA (S~155.29), ZM (S~245.92), ARKK (S~120.15), PINS (S~42.06), Z (S~58.15), BBY (S~123.65), GOOS (S~40.91), CTSH (R~82.00), LYFT (S~44.41), TMUS (S~118.00), WDC (51.47). S is for support. R is for resistance. 

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Cave-Fill Process: Widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket): Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Balance-areas make it easy to spot a change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend). 

Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 3, 2021

Abstract

Equity index futures and commodities were mixed. Bonds sideways to higher. Volatility bid.

Ahead is a heavy day of economic releases, in the face of fundamental narratives and positioning metrics that may later support directional resolve.

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures were flat as participants wait to initiate the next leg – higher or lower – until they are provided clarity on monetary policy frameworks, the pace of the economic recovery, and the like.

Ahead is ADP employment (8:15 AM ET), Markit services PMI (9:45 AM ET), ISM services index and factory orders (10:00 AM ET), as well as Federal Reserve statements (2:00 PM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Action: On lackluster breadth and market liquidity metrics, the best case outcome occurred, evidenced by participants’ exploration of new prices in the S&P 500.

Intent: The intraday excess high marks potential exhaustion (or willingness to end trend). Also, the rounding of the composite profile (i.e., developing ledge) suggests participants are either painting themselves into a corner or there is a lack of conviction to take price higher.

Validation: Sideways trade, above the $4,590.00 balance area high (BAH), and overlapping value areas, validates the market’s intent to pause ahead of new information.

Consideration: Poor structure left behind prior initiative trade (as evidenced by the presence of numerous gaps and p-shaped emotional, multiple-distribution profile structures which denote short-covering and a lack of material, new-money buying) adds to technical instability.

Should the market crack, participants will likely look to check old value (i.e., revisit, repair, and strengthen) these pockets of low-volume. This is called the “cave-fill” process, in volume profile terms.

Graphic: Flat delta (i.e., non-committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) announcement later today.

The announcement will provide participants with color on the economic recovery and the Federal Reserve’s intent to continue supporting the economy, at the rate it has. 

Nordea’s Andreas Steno Larsen states: “Jay Powell will have to walk on eggshells to prevent an acceleration of the front-end of the USD yield curve. Arguments for the Fed to tighten policy keep piling up and hence we see a swift tapering process (30B a meeting) and a first hike in June.” 

“The combination of 1) even higher inflation prints during Q4 (with several extremely volatile base effects), 2) a removal of USD liquidity, 3) a historically weak credit impulse into 2022 (due to a massive credit expansion 20/21) sounds like the perfect flattener setup to us,” which may weigh on sentiment and long term investments.

Graphic: “Keep flattening the yield curve during tapering,” via Nordea.

In terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was a touch higher, while spreads across the VIX futures term structure widened with demand coming in at the front.

Such a situation, as touched on yesterday, in addition to the long-gamma environment (in which counterparties hedge their warehoused options risk by buying underlying into weakness and selling into strength), has the effect of making it difficult to resolve directionally.

The reasons are: (1) options will slide down their term structure (vanna) and (2) skew decays (charm). When this happens, we expect to see supportive flows as dealers cover their short equity/futures hedges. 

With volatility bid, the effect of vanna and charm is dulled. As a result, it is likely that participants see more movement after the FOMC announcement.

To note, the potential for upside resolve comes down to how participants take the FOMC announcement. We know that, according to SpotGamma, there is increased capital being committed to higher and higher options strikes, a development often seen as bullish.

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Wednesday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the middle part of a neutral overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance (Two-Timeframe Or Bracket) Is The Status Quo: Rotational trade that denotes current prices offer favorable entry and exit. Modus operandi is responsive trade (i.e., fade the edges), rather than initiative trade (i.e., play the break).

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,620.25 high volume area (HVNode) pivot puts in play the $4,628.50 Fibonacci extension. Initiative trade beyond $4,628.50 could reach the $4,639.00 and $4,664.75 Fibonacci levels, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,620.25 HVNode puts in play the $4,590.00 balance area high (BAH). Initiative trade beyond the BAH could reach as low as the $4,574.25 HVNode and $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode), or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Cave-Fill Process: Widened the area deemed favorable to transact at by an increased share of participants. This is a good development.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Excess: A proper end to price discovery; the market travels too far while advertising prices. Responsive, other-timeframe (OTF) participants aggressively enter the market, leaving tails or gaps which denote unfair prices.

Ledges: Flattened area on the profile which suggests responsive participants are in control, or initiative participants lack the confidence to continue the discovery process. The ledge will either hold and force participants to liquidate (cover) their positions, or crack and offer support (resistance).

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

At this time, Physik Invest does not manage outside capital and is not licensed. In no way should the materials herein be construed as advice. Derivatives carry a substantial risk of loss. All content is for informational purposes only.

Categories
Commentary

Daily Brief For November 2, 2021

Abstract

Equity index futures mixed. Commodities mixed. Bonds sideways to lower. Volatility expanded.

Ahead is a light day of economic releases, in the face of fundamental narratives and positioning metrics that support intraday price stability.

What Happened

Overnight, equity index futures auctioned sideways as participants sought to position themselves for guidance on monetary policy, later this week.

Ahead is data on homeownership rates (10:00 AM ET).

Graphic updated 6:30 AM ET. Sentiment Neutral if expected /ES open is inside of the prior day’s range. /ES levels are derived from the profile graphic at the bottom of the following section. Levels may have changed since initially quoted; click here for the latest levels. SqueezeMetrics Dark Pool Index (DIX) and Gamma (GEX) calculations are based on where the prior day’s reading falls with respect to the MAX and MIN of all occurrences available. A higher DIX is bullish. At the same time, the lower the GEX, the more (expected) volatility. Learn the implications of volatility, direction, and moneyness. SHIFT data used for S&P 500 (INDEX: SPX) options activity. Note that options flow is sorted by the call premium spent; if more positive then more was spent on call options. Breadth reflects a reading of the prior day’s NYSE Advance/Decline indicator. VIX reflects a current reading of the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) from 0-100.

What To Expect

Action: On divergent intraday breadth and supportive market liquidity metrics, the worst-case outcome occurred, evidenced by the S&P 500’s acceptance of prices within Friday’s late-day spike, out of balance.

Intent: As also evidenced by the overlap of value areas, the acceptance of prices, within Friday’s late-day spike, out of balance, marks a potential willingness to continue sideways.

Validation: Sideways trade, above the $4,590.00 balance area high (BAH), validates the market’s prevailing intent to base ahead of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) decision, later this week.

Consideration: Weak structure left behind prior initiative trade adds to technical instability. 

To elaborate, for instance, Monday’s trade found responsive buyers at the $4,587.00 untested point of control (VPOC). This level likely was only known by participants who act on visual cues. 

These technically-driven participants are generally thought to not be able to defend retests. Therefore, these participants ought to quickly liquidate, if proven wrong, on a break of the BAH.

Graphic: Supportive delta (i.e., committed buying as measured by volume delta or buying and selling power as calculated by the difference in volume traded at the bid and offer) in SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSE: SPY), one of the largest ETFs that track the S&P 500 index, via Bookmap. The readings are supportive of responsive trade (i.e., rotational trade that suggests current prices offer favorable entry and exit; the market is in balance).

Context: Ample liquidity, peak growth, inflation, strong seasonality and buybacks, as well as monetary and fiscal policy uncertainties, and single-stock volatility.

Graphic: S&P 500 seasonality via The Market Ear.

Based on this context, Moody’s Corporation (NYSE: MCO) forecasts a peak; “The Dow Jones Industrial Average has peaked and will gradually decline during the next year. Risks are heavily weighted to the upside, but peak growth, inflation uncertainty around fiscal policy, and the Fed tapering could weigh on equity markets.”

In terms of positioning, the CBOE Volatility Index (INDEX: VIX) was higher, while demand came in across the VIX futures term structure, suggesting participants are inclined to hedge against near-term equity market instability.

Such a situation, in addition to the long-gamma environment (in which counterparties hedge their warehoused options risk by buying underlying into weakness and selling into strength), has the effect of making it difficult to resolve directionally.

The reason is, there are two knowns; as volatility contracts, (1) options will slide down their term structure (vanna) and (2) skew decays (charm). 

When this happens, we expect to see supportive flows when the dealers cover their short equity/futures hedges. With volatility bid, the effect of vanna and charm is dulled. It is likely that participants see more robust movement after the FOMC announcement, later this week.

In a separate note on volatility in stocks like Tesla Inc (NASDAQ: TSLA), SpotGamma says the following: “These rampant moves are appearing to be more widespread, and we believe this invokes instability that usually ends badly.”

Expectations: As of 6:30 AM ET, Monday’s regular session (9:30 AM – 4:00 PM ET), in the S&P 500, will likely open in the top part of a negatively skewed overnight inventory, inside of prior-range and -value, suggesting a limited potential for immediate directional opportunity.

Balance-Break Scenarios: A change in the market (i.e., the transition from two-time frame trade, or balance, to one-time frame trade, or trend) occurred.

We monitor for continued acceptance outside of the balance area. Rejection (i.e., a move below the balance area high) portends a move to the opposite end of the balance, lower.

In the best case, the S&P 500 trades sideways or higher; activity above the $4,590.00 BAH puts in play the $4,619.50 overnight high (ONH). Initiative trade beyond the ONH could reach as high as the $4,639.00 and $4,664.75 Fibonacci figures, or higher.

In the worst case, the S&P 500 trades lower; activity below the $4,590.00 BAH puts in play the $4,574.25 high volume area (HVNode). Initiative trade beyond the HVNode could reach as low as the $4,551.75 low volume area (LVNode), and $4,526.25 HVNode, or lower.

Click here to load today’s updated key levels into the web-based TradingView charting platform. Note that all levels are derived using the 65-minute timeframe. New links are produced, daily.
Graphic: 65-minute profile chart of the Micro E-mini S&P 500 Futures. Learn about the profile.

What People Are Saying

Definitions

Spikes: Spike’s mark the beginning of a break from value. Spikes higher (lower) are validated by trade at or above (below) the spike base (i.e., the origin of the spike).

Overnight Rally Highs (Lows): Typically, there is a low historical probability associated with overnight rally-highs (lows) ending the upside (downside) discovery process.

Volume Areas: A structurally sound market will build on areas of high volume (HVNodes). Should the market trend for long periods of time, it will lack sound structure, identified as low volume areas (LVNodes). LVNodes denote directional conviction and ought to offer support on any test. 

If participants were to auction and find acceptance into areas of prior low volume (LVNodes), then future discovery ought to be volatile and quick as participants look to HVNodes for favorable entry or exit.

Gamma: Gamma is the sensitivity of an option to changes in the underlying price. Dealers that take the other side of options trades hedge their exposure to risk by buying and selling the underlying. When dealers are short-gamma, they hedge by buying into strength and selling into weakness. When dealers are long-gamma, they hedge by selling into strength and buying into weakness. The former exacerbates volatility. The latter calms volatility.

Vanna: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to volatility.

Charm: The rate at which the delta of an option changes with respect to time.

Options: If an option buyer was short (long) stock, he or she would buy a call (put) to hedge upside (downside) exposure. Option buyers can also use options as an efficient way to gain directional exposure.

Value-Area Placement: Perception of value unchanged if value overlapping (i.e., inside day). Perception of value has changed if value not overlapping (i.e., outside day). Delay trade in the former case.

POCs: POCs are valuable as they denote areas where two-sided trade was most prevalent in a prior day session. Participants will respond to future tests of value as they offer favorable entry and exit.

About

After years of self-education, strategy development, and trial-and-error, Renato Leonard Capelj began trading full-time and founded Physik Invest to detail his methods, research, and performance in the markets.

Additionally, Capelj is a Benzinga finance and technology reporter interviewing the likes of Shark Tank’s Kevin O’Leary, JC2 Ventures’ John Chambers, and ARK Invest’s Catherine Wood, as well as a SpotGamma contributor, developing insights around impactful options market dynamics.

Disclaimer

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